UPDATED AMERICAN STANDARD VERSION

Translating Truth

The Book of Joshua

  • Author: Joshua
  • Place Written: Canaan
  • When Written: c. 1450 B.C.E.

Jehovah Encourages Joshua

And it came about after the death of Moses the servant of Jehovah, Jehovah spoke to Joshua[1] the son of Nun, Moses' assistant, saying, “Moses my servant is dead. Now therefore arise, go over this Jordan, you and all this people, into the land that I am giving to them, to the people of Israel. Every place that the sole of your foot will tread upon I have given to you, just as I spoke to Moses. From the wilderness and this Lebanon as far as the great river, the river Euphrates, all the land of the Hittites to the Great Sea[2] toward the going down of the sun shall be your territory. No man shall be able to stand before you all the days of your life. Just as I was with Moses, so I will be with you. I will not fail you or forsake you. Be strong and courageous, for you shall cause this people to inherit the land that I swore to their fathers to give them. Only be strong and very courageous, being careful to do according to all the law that Moses my servant commanded you; do not turn from it to the right or to the left, so that you may have success wherever you go. This Book of the Law shall not depart from your mouth, but you shall meditate on it day and night, so that you may be careful to do according to all that is written in it; for then you will make your way prosperous, and then you will have good success. Have I not commanded you? Be strong and courageous! Do not be afraid, and do not be dismayed, for Jehovah your God is with you wherever you go.”

Joshua’s Message to the People

10 Then Joshua commanded the officers of the people, saying, 11 “Pass through the midst of the camp and command the people, saying, ‘Prepare your provisions, for within three days you are to cross over this Jordan to go in to take possession of the land which Jehovah your God is giving you to possess.’”

12 And to the Reubenites, the Gadites, and the half-tribe of Manasseh Joshua said, 13 “Remember the word which Moses the servant of Jehovah commanded you, saying, ‘Jehovah your God is providing you a place of rest and will give you this land.’ 14 Your wives, your little ones, and your livestock shall remain in the land that Moses gave you beyond the Jordan, but all the men of valor among you shall pass over armed before your brothers and shall help them,15 until Jehovah gives rest to your brothers as he has to you, and they also take possession of the land that Jehovah your God is giving them. Then you shall return to the land of your possession and shall possess it, the land that Moses the servant of Jehovah gave you beyond the Jordan toward the sunrise.”

The Tribes’ Reassurance

16 And they answered Joshua, saying, “All that you have commanded us we will do, and wherever you send us we will go. 17 Just as we obeyed Moses in all things, so we will obey you. Only may Jehovah your God be with you, as he was with Moses! 18 Whoever rebels against your commandment and disobeys your words, whatever you command him, shall be put to death. Only be strong and of good courage.”

Rahab Hides the Spies

And Joshua the son of Nun sent two men secretly from Shittim as spies, saying, “Go, view the land, especially Jericho.” And they went and came into the house of a prostitute whose name was Rahab and lodged there. And it was told to the king of Jericho, saying, “Look, men of Israel have come here tonight to search out the land.” Then the king of Jericho sent to Rahab, saying, “Bring out the men who have come to you, who entered your house, for they have come to search out all the land.” But the woman had taken the two men and hidden them. And she said, “True, the men came to me, but I did not know where they were from. And when the gate was about to be closed at dark, the men went out. I do not know where the men went. Pursue them quickly, for you will overtake them.” But she had brought them up to the roof and hid them with the stalks of flax which she had laid in order on the roof. So the men pursued after them on the way to the Jordan as far as the fords, and the gate was shut once the pursuers had gone out.

Rahab’s Assurance from Israel’s Spies

Before they lay down, she came up to them on the roof and said to the men, “I know that Jehovah has given you the land, and that the fear of you has fallen upon us, and that all the inhabitants of the land melt away before you. 10 For we have heard how Jehovah dried up the water of the Sea of Reeds[3] before you when you came out of Egypt, and what you did to the two kings of the Amorites who were beyond the Jordan, to Sihon and Og, whom you devoted to destruction. 11 And as soon as we heard it, our hearts melted, and there was no spirit left in any man because of you, for Jehovah your God, he is God in the heavens above and on the earth beneath. 12 Now then, please swear to me by Jehovah that, as I have dealt kindly with you, you also will deal kindly with my father's house, and give me a sure sign 13 that you will save alive my father and mother, my brothers and sisters, and all who belong to them, and deliver our souls from death.” 14 And the men said to her, “Our souls for yours even to death. If you do not tell this business of ours; and it shall come about then when Jehovah gives us the land, we will deal kindly and faithfully with you.”

15 Then she let them down by a rope through the window, for her house was built into the city wall, so that she dwelt on the wall. 16 And she said to them, “Go into the hills, or the pursuers will encounter you, and hide yourselves there three days until the pursuers have returned. Then afterward you may go your way.” 17 The men said to her, “We will be guiltless with respect to this oath of yours which you have made us swear. 18 Look, when we come into the land, you shall tie this cord of scarlet thread in the window through which you let us down and gather to yourself into the house your father and your mother and your brothers and all your father’s household. 19 It shall come about that anyone who goes out of the doors of your house into the street, his blood shall be on his own head, and we shall be free; but anyone who is with you in the house, his blood shall be on our head if a hand is laid on him. 20 But if you tell this business of ours, then we shall be guiltless with respect to your oath that you have made us swear.” 21 And she said, “According to your words, so be it.” Then she sent them away, and they departed. And she tied the scarlet cord in the window.

The Spies’ Testimony

22 They departed and went into the hills and remained there three days until the pursuers returned, and the pursuers searched all along the way and found nothing. 23 Then the two men returned. They came down from the hills and passed over and came to Joshua the son of Nun, and they told him all that had happened to them. 24 And they said to Joshua, “Truly Jehovah has given all the land into our hands; and moreover, all the inhabitants of the land are fainthearted because of us.”

The Preparation for Crossing the Jordan

Then Joshua rose early in the morning and they set out from Shittim. And they came to the Jordan, he and all the sons of Israel, and lodged there before they crossed over. 

Joshua’s Commands to the People

And it was at the end of three days the officers went through the camp and they commanded the people, saying “When you see the ark of the covenant of Jehovah your God with the Levitical priests carrying it, then you shall set out from your place and follow it. Yet there shall be a distance between you and it, about two thousand cubits[4] by measure. Do not come near it, in order that you may know the way you shall go, for you have not passed this way before.” 

Then Joshua said to the people, “Sanctify yourselves, for tomorrow Jehovah will do wonders among you.” 

Joshuas Commands to the Priests

And Joshua spoke to the priests, saying “Take up the ark of the covenant and cross over ahead the people.”[5] So, they took up the ark of the covenant and went ahead of the people.[6]

And Jehovah said to Joshua, “This day I will begin to exalt you in the sight of all Israel, that they may know that, as I was with Moses, so I will be with you.And you shall command the priests who bear the ark of the covenant, saying ‘When you come to the brink of the waters of the Jordan, you shall stand still in the Jordan.’” 

And Joshua said to the sons of Israel, “Come here and listen to the words of Jehovah your God.” 10 And Joshua said, “By this you shall know that the living God is among you and that he will without fail drive out from before you the Canaanites, the Hittites, the Hivites, the Perizzites, the Girgashites, the Amorites, and the Jebusites. 11 Look, the ark of the covenant of the Lord of all the earth is crossing over ahead of you into the Jordan. 12 Now therefore take for yourselves twelve men from the tribes of Israel, one man for each tribe. 13 And it shall come about when the soles of the feet of the priests bearing the ark of Jehovah, the Lord of all the earth, shall rest in the waters of the Jordan, the waters of the Jordan shall be cut off from flowing, and the waters coming down from above shall stand in one heap.”

How and Where They Cross Over

14 And so it shall be when the people set out from their tents to cross over the Jordan with the priests bearing the ark of the covenant before the people,[7] 15 and when those who carried the ark had come as far as the Jordan, and the feet of the priests bearing the ark were dipped in the brink of the water (now the Jordan overflows all its banks throughout the days of harvest), 16 the waters coming down from above stood and rose up in a heap very far away, at Adam,[8] the city that is beside Zarethan, and those flowing down toward the Sea of the Arabah, the Salt Sea,[9] were completely cut off. So, the people crossed over opposite Jericho. 17 And the priests who carried the ark of the covenant of Jehovah stood firmly on dry ground in the midst of the Jordan, and all Israel was crossing over on dry ground until all the nation finished crossing over the Jordan.

Twelve Memorial Stones from the Jordan

Now it was when all the nation had finished crossing over the Jordan, Jehovah spoke to Joshua, saying, “Take for yourselves twelve men from the people, one man from each tribe, and command them, saying, ‘Take up for yourselves twelve stones from here out of the midst of the Jordan, from the place where the priests’ feet stood firmly, and bring them over with you and lay them down in the place where you lodge tonight.’” 

Then Joshua called the twelve men from the sons of Israel, whom he had appointed, one man from each tribe. And Joshua said to them, “Cross over before the ark of Jehovah your God into the midst of the Jordan and take up each of you a stone upon his shoulder, according to the number of the tribes of the sons of Israel, that this may be a sign among you. When your children ask in time to come, saying, ‘What do those stones mean to you?’ then you shall tell them that the waters of the Jordan were cut off before the ark of the covenant of Jehovah. When it crossed over the Jordan, the waters of the Jordan were cut off. So, these stones shall be to the sons of Israel a memorial forever.”

And the sons of Israel did just as Joshua commanded and took up twelve stones out of the midst of the Jordan, according to the number of the tribes of the sons of Israel, just as Jehovah spoke Joshua. And they carried them over with them to the place where they lodged and laid them down there.

And Joshua set up twelve stones in the midst of the Jordan, in the place where the feet of the priests who carried the ark of the covenant stood; and they are there to this day. 

Who Crosses Over First?

10 For the priests carrying the ark stood in the midst of the Jordan until everything was finished that Jehovah commanded Joshua to tell the people, according to all that Moses had commanded Joshua. The people crossed over in haste. 11 And when all the people had finished crossing, the ark of Jehovah and the priests crossed before the people. 12 The sons of Reuben and the sons of Gad and the half-tribe of Manasseh crossed over armed before the sons of Israel, just as Moses had spoken to them. 13 About forty thousand ready for war crossed over before Jehovah for battle, to the plains of Jericho. 

14 On that day Jehovah exalted Joshua in the eyes of all Israel, and they feared[10] him just as they had feared[11] Moses, all the days of his life.

When They Cross Over

15 And Jehovah spoke to Joshua, saying, 16 “Command the priests who carry the ark of the testimony that they come up from the Jordan.” 17 So Joshua commanded the priests, saying, “Come up out of the Jordan.” 18 And it came to pass, when the priests that carried the ark of the covenant of Jehovah came up out of the midst of the Jordan, and the soles of the priests’ feet were lifted up to the dry ground, that the waters of the Jordan returned to their place, and went over all its banks, as before.

19 And the people came up out of the Jordan on the tenth day of the first month, and they encamped at Gilgal on the east border of Jericho. 

20 And those twelve stones, which they took out of the Jordan, Joshua set up at Gilgal. 21 And he spoke to the sons of Israel, “When your children ask their fathers in times to come, saying ‘What do these stones mean?’ 22 then you shall let your children know, saying, ‘Israel crossed over this Jordan on dry ground.’ 23 For Jehovah your God dried up the waters of the Jordan before you[12] until you[13] crossed over, as Jehovah your God did to the Sea of Reeds,[14] which he dried up before us until we crossed over, 24 so that all the peoples of the earth may know that the hand of Jehovah is mighty, so that you may fear Jehovah your God forever.”

The New Generation Circumcised at Gilgal

Now it came about as soon as all the kings of the Amorites who were beyond the Jordan toward the sea,[15] and all the kings of the Canaanites who were by the sea, heard that Jehovah had dried up the waters of the Jordan for the people of Israel until they had crossed over, their hearts melted and there was no longer any spirit in them because of the sons of Israel.

Circumcision of All the Males

At that time Jehovah said to Joshua, “Make for yourselves flint knives and circumcise the sons of Israel a second time.” So Joshua made flint knives and circumcised the sons of Israel at Gibeath-haaraloth.[16] This is the reason why Joshua circumcised them: all the people who came out of Egypt who were males, all the men of war,[17] died in the wilderness on the way after they had come out of Egypt. For all the people who came out were circumcised, but all the people who were born in the wilderness along the way as they came out of Egypt had not been circumcised. For the sons of Israel walked forty years in the wilderness, until all the nation, that is, the men of war who came out of Egypt, perished because they did not listen to the voice of Jehovah, to whom Jehovah had sworn that he would not let them see the land which Jehovah had sworn to their forefathers to give us, a land flowing with milk and honey. So it was their children, whom he raised up in their place, that Joshua circumcised; for they were uncircumcised, because they had not been circumcised on the way.

Now it came about, when the circumcising of the whole nation was finished, they remained in their places in the camp until they were healed. 

And Jehovah said to Joshua, “Today I have rolled away the reproach of Egypt from you.” And so the name of that place is called Gilgal[18] to this day.

First Passover in Canaan; Manna Stops

10 While the sons of Israel were encamped at Gilgal, they kept the Passover on the fourteenth day of the month in the evening on the plains of Jericho. 11 And the day after the Passover, on that very day, they ate some of the produce of the land, unleavened cakes, and parched grain. 12 And the manna ceased on the day after they ate of the produce of the land, and there was not any more manna for the son of Israel, but they ate of the fruit of the land of Canaan that year.

The Commander of Jehovah's Army

13 Now it came about when Joshua was by Jericho, that he lifted up his eyes and looked, and look, a man was standing opposite him with his sword drawn in his hand, and Joshua went to him and said to him, “Are you for us or for our adversaries?” 14 And he said, “No; but I am the commander of the army of Jehovah. Now I have come.” And Joshua fell on his face to the earth, and he bowed down and said to him, “What does my lord have to say to his servant?” 15 And the commander of the Jehovah’s army said to Joshua, “Take off your sandals from your feet, for the place where you are standing is holy.” And Joshua did so.

The Wall of Jericho Falls

Now Jericho was tightly shut up because of the sons of Israel. None went out, and none came in. 

And Jehovah said to Joshua, “See, I have given Jericho into your hand, with its king and mighty men of valor.[19] You shall march around the city, all the men of war going around the city once. Thus, shall you do for six days. And seven priests shall bear seven trumpets of rams’ horns before the ark. On the seventh day you shall march around the city seven times, and the priests shall blow the trumpets. And it shall be that when they make a long blast with the ram’s horn, when you hear the sound of the trumpet, then all the people shall shout with a great shout, and the wall of the city will fall down flat, and the people shall go up, every man straight before him.” 

So Joshua the son of Nun called the priests and said to them, “Take up the ark of the covenant and let seven priests bear seven trumpets of rams’ horns before the ark of Jehovah.” And he[20] said to the people, “Go forward and march around the city, and let the armed men pass before the ark of Jehovah.” And just as Joshua had commanded the people, the seven priests bearing the seven trumpets of rams’ horns before Jehovah went forward, blowing the trumpets, with the ark of the covenant of Jehovah following them. The armed men went before the priests who blew the trumpets, and the rear guard came after the ark, while they continued walking and blowing. 

10 But Joshua commanded the people, saying, “You shall not shout nor let your voice be heard nor let a word proceed out of your mouth, until the day I tell you, ‘Shout.’ Then you shall shout.” 11 So he caused the ark of Jehovah to circle the city, going about it once; and they came into the camp and spent the night in the camp.

The Conquest of Jericho

12 Then Joshua rose early in the morning, and the priests took up the ark of Jehovah. 13 The seven priests carrying the seven trumpets of the rams’ horns before the ark of Jehovah went on continually, and they blew on the trumpets. And the armed men went before them, and the rear guard came after the ark of Jehovah, while the trumpets blew continually. 14 And the second day they marched around the city once and returned into the camp. So, they did for six days.

15 Then on the seventh day they rose early, at the dawn of day, and marched around the city in the same manner seven times. It was only on that day that they marched around the city seven times. 16 And at the seventh time, when the priests blew the trumpets, Joshua said to the people, “Shout! For Jehovah has given you the city. 17 And the city and all that is within it shall be devoted to Jehovah; only Rahab the prostitute and all who are with her in her house shall live, because she hid the messengers whom we sent. 18 But you, keep yourselves from the things devoted to destruction, so that you do not take them and bring about your own destruction[21] and make the camp of Israel a thing for destruction and bring trouble upon it. 19 But all silver and gold, and every vessel of copper and iron, are holy to Jehovah; they shall go into the treasury of Jehovah.” 

20 So the people shouted, and they blew on the trumpets. And it was as soon as the people heard the sound of the trumpet, the people shouted a great shout, and the wall fell down flat, so that the people went up into the city, every man straight ahead him, and they took the city. 21 Then they devoted all in the city to destruction, both men and women, young and old, oxen, sheep, and donkeys, with the edge of the sword.

Rahab and Her Family Spared

22 But to the two men who had spied out the land, Joshua said, “Go into the house of the woman, the prostitute, and bring out from there the woman and all who belong to her, as you swore to her.” 23 So the young men who had been spies went in and brought out Rahab and her father and mother and brothers and all who belonged to her; and all her relatives they brought out and put them outside the camp of Israel. 

24 And the city they burned with fire, and all that was in it. Only the silver and gold, and the vessels of copper and of iron, they put into the treasury of the house of Jehovah. 25 But Rahab the prostitute and her father’s household and all who belonged to her, Joshua saved alive, and she has dwelt in Israel to this day, because she hid the messengers whom Joshua sent to spy out Jericho.

26 Joshua laid an oath on them at that time, saying, “Cursed before Jehovah be the man who rises up and rebuilds this city, Jericho.

“At the cost of his firstborn shall he
    lay its foundation,
and at the cost of his youngest son
    shall he set up its gates.”

27 So Jehovah was with Joshua, and his fame was in all the land.

Israel Defeated at Ai

But the sons of Israel acted exceedingly unfaithfully in regard to the devoted things, for Achan the son of Carmi, the son of Zabdi, the son of Zerah, of the tribe of Judah, took some of the devoted things. And the anger of Jehovah burned against the sons of Israel.

So Joshua sent men from Jericho to Ai, which is near Beth-aven, east of Bethel, and said to them, “Go up and spy out the land.” And the men went up and spied out Ai. And they returned to Joshua and said to him, “Do not let all the people go up, but let about two or three thousand men go up and attack Ai. Do not make all the people toil up there, for they are few.” 

So about three thousand men from the people went up there, and they fled before the men of Ai, and the men of Ai struck down about thirty-six of their men and pursued them before the gate as far as Shebarim[22] and struck them down on the descent. And the hearts of the people melted and became as water.

Joshua’s Prayer

Then Joshua tore his clothes and fell to the earth on his face before the ark of Jehovah until the evening, he and the elders of Israel. And they put dust on their heads. And Joshua said, “Alas, O Jehovah GOD, why have you brought this people over the Jordan at all, to give us into the hands of the Amorites, to destroy us? Would that we had been content to dwell beyond the Jordan! O Jehovah,[23] what can I say, when Israel has turned their backs before their enemies! For the Canaanites and all the inhabitants of the land will hear of it and they will surround us and cut off our name from the earth. And what will you do for your great name?”

The Sin of Achan Caused Israel’s Defeat

10 Jehovah said to Joshua, “Get up! Why have you fallen on your face? 11 Israel has sinned, and they have transgressed my covenant which I commanded them. And they have taken some of the devoted things; they have stolen and lied and put them among their own belongings. 12 Therefore the sons of Israel cannot stand before their enemies; they turn their backs before their enemies, because they have become devoted for destruction. I will be with you no more, unless you destroy the devoted things from among you. 13 Rise up! Consecrate the people and say, ‘Consecrate yourselves for tomorrow; for thus says Jehovah, the God of Israel, “There are devoted things in your midst, O Israel. You cannot stand before your enemies until you take away the devoted things from among you.” 14 In the morning therefore you shall be brought near by your tribes. And the tribe that Jehovah takes by lot shall come near by families. And the family that Jehovah takes shall come near by households. And the household which Jehovah takes shall come near man by man. 15 And it shall be that he who is taken with the devoted things shall be burned with fire, he and all that he has, because he has transgressed the covenant of Jehovah, and because he has done a shameful thing in Israel.’

Achan Exposed and Stoned

16 So Joshua rose early in the morning and brought Israel near tribe by tribe, and the tribe of Judah was taken. 17 And he brought near the families of Judah, and the family of the Zerahites was taken. And he brought near the family of the Zerahites man by man, and Zabdi was taken. 18 And he brought near his household man by man, and Achan the son of Carmi, son of Zabdi, son of Zerah, of the tribe of Judah, was taken. 19 Then Joshua said to Achan, “My son, I entreat you, give glory to Jehovah God of Israel and give praise to him. And tell me now what you have done; do not hide it from me.” 

20 And Achan answered Joshua and said, “Truly I have sinned against Jehovah God of Israel, and this is what I did: 21 I saw among the spoil a beautiful garment from Shinar, two hundred shekels[24] of silver, and one bar of gold that weighed fifty shekels; I coveted them and took them. They are hidden in the ground inside my tent, and the silver is underneath it.”

22 So Joshua sent messengers, and they ran to the tent; and look, it was hidden in his tent with the silver underneath it. 23 And they took them out of the tent and brought them to Joshua and to all the sons of Israel. And they laid them down before Jehovah. 24 And Joshua and all Israel with him took Achan the son of Zerah, and the silver and the garment and the bar of gold, and his sons and daughters and his oxen and donkeys and sheep and his tent and all that he had. And they brought them up to the Valley of Achor. 25 And Joshua said, “Why did you bring trouble on us? Jehovah brings trouble on you today.” And all Israel stoned him with stones; and they burned them with fire after they stoned them with stones. 26 And they raised over him a great heap of stones that remains to this day. Then Jehovah turned from his burning anger. Therefore, the name of that place is called the Valley of Achor[25] to this day.

Joshua Sets an Ambush for the Fall of Ai

And Jehovah said to Joshua, “Do not fear and do not be dismayed. Take all the fighting men with you, and arise, go up to Ai. See, I have given into your hand the king of Ai, and his people, his city, and his land. And you shall do to Ai and its king as you did to Jericho and its king. Only its spoil and its livestock you shall take as plunder for yourselves. Lay for yourself an ambush against the city, behind it.”

So Joshua and all the fighting men arose to go up to Ai. And Joshua chose thirty thousand mighty men of valor and sent them out by night. And he commanded them, saying, “Look, you shall lie in ambush against the city, behind it. Do not go very far from the city, but all of you remain ready. And I and all the people who are with me will approach the city. And it shall be when they come out to meet us just as before, we shall flee before them. And they will come out after us, until we have drawn them away from the city. For they will say, ‘They are fleeing from us, just as before.’ So, we will flee before them. Then you shall rise up from the ambush and seize the city, for Jehovah your God will give it into your hand. And it shall be when you have taken the city, you shall set the city on fire. You shall do according to the word of Jehovah. See, I have commanded you.” 

So Joshua sent them out. And they went to the place of ambush and lay between Bethel and Ai, to the west of Ai, but Joshua spent that night among the people.

10 And Joshua arose early in the morning and mustered the people and went up, he and the elders of Israel, before the people to Ai. 11 And all the fighting men who were with him went up and drew near before the city and camped on the north side of Ai, with a valley between them and Ai. 12 And he took about five thousand men and set them in ambush between Bethel and Ai, to the west of the city. 13 So they stationed the forces, the main camp which was north of the city and its rear guard west of the city. But Joshua spent that night in the valley.

Ai Successfully Captured

14 And when the king of Ai saw this, that the men of the city hurried and rose up early and went out to meet Israel in battle, he and all his people at the appointed place before the Arabah.[26] But he did not know that there was an ambush against him behind the city. 15 And Joshua and all Israel made a pretense as if they were beaten before them and fled by the way of the wilderness. 16 So all the people who were in the city were called together to pursue them, and as they pursued Joshua they were drawn away from the city. 17 And there was not a man was left in Ai or Bethel[27] who did not go out after Israel. They left the city open and pursued Israel.

18 And Jehovah said to Joshua, “Stretch out the javelin that is in your hand toward Ai, for I will give it into your hand.” And Joshua stretched out the javelin that was in his hand toward the city. 19 And the men in the ambush rose quickly out of their place, and as soon as he had stretched out his hand, they ran and entered the city and captured it. And they hurried to set the city on fire. 

20 So when the men of Ai looked back, look, the smoke of the city went up to heaven, and they had no power[28] to flee this way or that, for the people who fled to the wilderness turned back against the pursuers. 21 And when Joshua and all Israel saw that the ambush had captured the city, and that the smoke of the city went up, then they turned back and struck down the men of Ai. 22 And the others came forth out of the city against them; so, they were in the midst of Israel, some on this side, and some on that side: and they struck them, so that they let none of them survived or escaped. 23 But the king of Ai they took alive and brought him near to Joshua.

24 And it came about, when Israel had made an end of slaying all the inhabitants of Ai in the field, in the wilderness where they pursued them, and they were all fallen by the edge of the sword, until they were destroyed, that all Israel returned unto Ai, and struck it with the edge of the sword. 25 And all that fell that day, both of men and women, were twelve thousand, even all the men[29] of Ai. 26 For Joshua did not draw back his hand, where he stretched out the javelin, until he had utterly destroyed all the inhabitants of Ai. 27 Only the livestock and the spoil of that city Israel took as their plunder, according to the word of Jehovah which he commanded Joshua. 

28 So Joshua burned Ai and made it forever a heap of ruins, as it is to this day. 29 And the king of Ai he hanged on a tree until the evening: and at the going down of the sun Joshua commanded, and they took his body down from the tree, and threw it at the entrance of the gate of the city, and raised over it a great heap of stones, to this day.

Joshua Renews the Covenant – Law Read at Mount Ebal

30 Then Joshua built an altar to Jehovah, the God of Israel, on Mount Ebal, 31 just as Moses the servant of Jehovah had commanded the sons of Israel, as it is written in the book of the law of Moses, an altar of uncut stones on which no man had wielded an iron tool; and they offered burnt offerings on it to Jehovah, and sacrificed peace offerings. 32 He wrote there on the stones a copy of the law of Moses, which he[30] had written, in the presence of the sons of Israel. 33 And all Israel, and their elders and officers, and their judges, stood on this side of the ark and on that side before the Levitical priests, that carried the ark of the covenant of Jehovah, as well the sojourner as the native born; half of them in front of mount Gerizim, and half of them in front of mount Ebal; as Moses the servant of Jehovah had commanded at the first, that they should bless the people of Israel. 34 And afterward he read all the words of the law, the blessing and the curse, according to all that is written in the book of the law. 35 There was not a word of all that Moses had commanded that Joshua did not read aloud in front of all the congregation of Israel, including the women and children and the sojourners who were walking[31] among them.

The Shrewd Gibeonite Seek Peace Through Deception

9 And it came about when the kings who were beyond the Jordan in the hill country and in the Shephelah[32] all along the coast of the Great Sea[33] and[34] in front of Lebanon, the Hittites, the Amorites, the Canaanites, the Perizzites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites, heard of this, that they gathered themselves together with one accord to fight with Joshua and with Israel.

But when the inhabitants of Gibeon heard what Joshua had done to Jericho and to Ai, they on their part acted with cunning and went and made ready provisions[35] and took worn-out sacks for their donkeys, and wineskins, worn-out and torn and mended, and worn-out and patched sandals on their feet, and they were wearing worn-out garments; and all the bread of their provisions was dry and crumbly. And they went to Joshua to the camp at Gilgal and said to him and to the men of Israel, “We have come from a far country; now therefore, make a covenant with us.” But the men of Israel said to the Hivites, “Perhaps you live among us; then how can we make a covenant with you?” They said to Joshua, “We are your servants.”

And Joshua said to them, “Who are you? And where do you come from?” They said to him, “Your servants have come from a very distant land because of the name of Jehovah your God, because we have heard about his fame and about all he did in Egypt, 10 and all that he did to the two kings of the Amorites who were beyond the Jordan,[36] to Sihon the king of Heshbon, and to Og king of Bashan, who lived in Ashtaroth. 11 So our elders and all the inhabitants of our country spoke to us, saying, ‘Take provisions in your hand for the journey, and go to meet them and say to them, “We are your servants; now then, make a covenant with us.”’ 12 This bread that we took as our provisions was still hot on the day we left our houses to come here to you, but now, look, it is dry and crumbly. 13 And these wineskins were new when we filled them, but now they have burst; and our garments and sandals have worn out because of the great length of the journey.” 

14 And the men took some of their provisions, but they did not ask of Jehovah. 15 And Joshua made peace with them and made a covenant with them, to let them live, and the leaders of the congregation swore to them.

The Gibeonites’ Deception Exposed

16 At the end of three days after they had made a covenant with them, they heard that they were their neighbors and that they lived among them.[37] 17 Then the sons of Israel set out and came to their cities on the third day. Now their cities were Gibeon and Chephirah and Beeroth and Kiriath-jearim. 18 The sons of Israel did not strike them because the leaders of the congregation had sworn to them by Jehovah the God of Israel. And the whole congregation grumbled against the leaders. 19 But all the leaders said to all the congregation, “We have sworn to them by Jehovah, the God of Israel, and now we cannot touch them. 20 This we will do to them: let them live, lest wrath be upon us, because of the oath which we swore to them.” 21 And the leaders said to them, “Let them live.” So, they became cutters of wood and drawers of water for all the congregation, just as the leaders had said of them.

Gibeonites to Be Cutters of Wood and Drawers of Water

22 Joshua summoned them, and he said to them, saying, “Why did you deceive us, saying, ‘We are very far from you,’ when you dwell among us? 23 Now therefore you are cursed, and some of you shall always be slaves, cutters of wood and drawers of water for the house of my God.” 24 They answered Joshua, “Because it was told to your servants for a certainty that Jehovah your God had commanded his servant Moses to give you all the land and to destroy all the inhabitants of the land from before you; so we feared greatly for our souls because of you, and have done this thing. 25 And now look, we are in your hands; do as it seems good and right in your eyes to do to us.” 26 So he did this to them and delivered them out of the hand of the sons of Israel, and they did not kill them. 27 But Joshua made them that day cutters of wood and drawers of water for the congregation and for the altar of Jehovah, to this day, in the place which he should choose.

Israel Defends Gibeon and the Sun Stands Still

10 And it happened that when Adoni-Zedek king of Jerusalem heard that Joshua captured Ai and had utterly destroyed it (just as he had done to Jericho and its king, so he did to Ai and its king) and that the inhabitants of Gibeon had made peace with Israel and were among them, and they[38] feared greatly, because Gibeon was a great city, like one of the cities of the kingdom,[39] and because it was greater than Ai, and all its men were warriors. So Adoni-zedek king of Jerusalem sent to Hoham king of Hebron, to Piram king of Jarmuth, to Japhia king of Lachish, and to Debir king of Eglon, saying, “Come up to me and help me, and let us strike Gibeon. For it has made peace with Joshua and with the sons of Israel.” Then the five kings of the Amorites, the king of Jerusalem, the king of Hebron, the king of Jarmuth, the king of Lachish, and the king of Eglon, gathered their forces and went up with all their armies and camped against Gibeon and made war against it.

And the men of Gibeon sent to Joshua at the camp in Gilgal, saying, “Do not relax your hand from your servants. Come up to us quickly and save us and help us, for all the kings of the Amorites who dwell in the hill country are gathered against us.” So Joshua went up from Gilgal, he and all the people of war with him, and all the mighty men of valor. 

Jehovah fights for Israel

And Jehovah said to Joshua, “Do not fear them, for into your hands I have given them. Not a man of them shall stand before you.” So Joshua came upon them suddenly, all night having marched from Gilgal. 10 And Jehovah threw them into a panic before Israel, and he[40] slew them with a great slaughter at Gibeon and pursued them by the way of the ascent of Beth-horon and struck them as far as Azekah and Makkedah. 11 And as they fled before Israel, while they were going down the ascent of Beth-horon, Jehovah threw down large stones from heaven on them as far as Azekah, and they died. There were more who died because of the hailstones than the sons of Israel killed with the sword.

The Sun Stands Still

12 Then Joshua spoke to Jehovah in the day when Jehovah gave the Amorites over to the sons of Israel, and he said in the sight of Israel,

“Sun, stand still at Gibeon,
    and moon, in the Valley of Aijalon.”
13 And the sun stood still, and the moon stopped,
    until the nation avenged themselves of their enemies.

Is this not written in the Book of Jashar?[41] The sun stopped in the midst of heaven and did not hurry to go down for about a whole day. 14 There has not been a day like this before it or after it, when Jehovah heeded the voice of a man, for Jehovah fought for Israel.

15 And Joshua returned, and all Israel with him, to the camp at Gilgal.

The Attacking Five Amorite Kings Executed

16 And these five kings fled and hid themselves in the cave at Makkedah. 17 And it was told Joshua, saying, “The five kings have been found, hidden in the cave at Makkedah.” 18 And Joshua said, “Roll large stones against the mouth of the cave and set men by it to guard them, 19 but do not stay there yourselves; pursue your enemies and strike them from the rear. Do not allow them to enter their cities, for Jehovah your God has given them into your hand.” 

20 It came about when Joshua and the sons of Israel had finished slaying them with a very great slaughter, until they were wiped out, and the remnant who remained of them had entered the fortified cities, 21 that all the people returned to the camp to Joshua at Makkedah in peace. No one moved his tongue against any of the sons of Israel. 22 Then Joshua said, “Open the mouth of the cave and bring those five kings out to me from the cave.” 23 And they did so and brought those five kings out to him from the cave, the king of Jerusalem, the king of Hebron, the king of Jarmuth, the king of Lachish, and the king of Eglon. 24 And when they brought those kings out to Joshua, Joshua summoned all the men of Israel and said to the chiefs of the men of war who had gone with him, “Come near; put your feet on the necks of these kings.” Then they came near and put their feet on their necks. 25 And Joshua said to them, “Do not be afraid or dismayed; be strong and courageous. For thus Jehovah will do to all your enemies against whom you fight.” 

26 And afterward Joshua struck them and put them to death, and he hanged them on five trees. And they hung on the trees until evening. 27 And it came about at sunset that Joshua gave a command, and they took them down from the trees and threw them into the cave where they had hidden themselves and put large stones over the mouth of the cave, to this very day.

28 And Joshua captured Makkedah on that day and struck it and its king with the edge of the sword; he utterly destroyed them[42] and all the souls that were in it. He left none remaining; and he did to the king of Makkedah as he had done to the king of Jericho.

The Conquest and Capture of Southern Cities in Canaan

29 Then Joshua and all Israel with him passed on from Makkedah to Libnah and fought against Libnah. 30 And Jehovah gave it also and its king into the hand of Israel. And he struck it with the edge of the sword, and every soul in it; he left none remaining in it. And he did to its king as he had done to the king of Jericho.

31 And Joshua and all Israel with him passed on from Libnah to Lachish, and he camped opposite it and fought against it. 32 And Jehovah gave Lachish into the hand of Israel, and he captured it on the second day and struck it with the edge of the sword, and every soul in it, as he had done to Libnah.

33 Then Horam king of Gezer came up to help Lachish. And Joshua struck him and his people, until he left none remaining.

34 And Joshua and all Israel with him passed on from Lachish to Eglon, and they camped opposite it and fought against it. 35 And they captured it on that day and struck it with the edge of the sword; and he utterly destroyed that day every soul who was in it, according to all that he had done to Lachish.

36 Then Joshua and all Israel with him went up from Eglon to Hebron, and they fought against it. 37 And they captured it and struck it and its king and all its cities and all the souls who were in it with the edge of the sword. He left none remaining, according to all that he had done to Eglon. And he utterly destroyed it and every soul who was in it.

38 Then Joshua and all Israel with him turned back to Debir and fought against it. 39 And he captured it and its king and all its cities, and they struck them with the edge of the sword, and utterly destroyed every soul who was in it. He left none remaining. Just as he had done to Hebron, so he did to Debir and its king, as he had also done to Libnah and its king.

40 So Joshua struck all the land, the hill country and the Negev[43] and the lowland and the slopes and all their kings. He left none remaining, but he utterly destroyed all who breathed, just as Jehovah, the God of Israel, had commanded. 41 Joshua struck them from Kadesh-barnea even as far as Gaza, and all the country of Goshen even as far as Gibeon. 42 And Joshua captured all these kings and their land at one time, because Jehovah God of Israel fought for Israel. 43 Then Joshua returned, and all Israel with him, to the camp at Gilgal.

The Conquest and Capture of Northern Cities in Canaan

11 Then it came about, when Jabin king of Hazor heard of it, that he sent to Jobab king of Madon and to the king of Shimron and to the king of Achshaph, and to the kings who were of the north in the hill country, and in the Arabah[44] south of Chinneroth[45] and in the lowland and on the heights of Dor on the west, to the Canaanites in the east and the west, the Amorites, the Hittites, the Perizzites, and the Jebusites in the hill country, and the Hivites under[46] Hermon in the land of Mizpah. They came out, they and all their armies with them, as a great army like the sand on the seashore, with very many horses and chariots. And all these kings joined forces, and they came and camped together by the waters of Merom to fight with Israel.

And Jehovah said to Joshua, “Do not be afraid of them, for tomorrow at this time I will give over all of them, slain, to Israel. You shall hamstring their horses and burn their chariots with fire.” So Joshua and all the fighting men with him came upon them suddenly by the waters of Merom and attacked them. And Jehovah gave them into the hand of Israel, who struck them and pursued them as far as Great Sidon and Misrephoth-maim, and eastward as far as the Valley of Mizpeh. And they struck them until he left none remaining. Joshua did to them as Jehovah had told him; he hamstrung their horses and burned their chariots with fire.

10 Then Joshua turned back at that time, and captured Hazor and struck its king with the sword; for Hazor formerly was the head of all these kingdoms. 11 And they[47] struck every soul who was in it with the edge of the sword, utterly destroying them; there was no one left who breathed. And he burned Hazor with fire. 12 Joshua captured all the cities of these kings, and all their kings, and he struck them with the edge of the sword, and utterly destroyed them; just as Moses the servant of Jehovah had commanded. 13 But as for the cities that stood on their mounds, Israel burned none of them, except Hazor only; that Joshua burned. 14 All the spoil of these cities and the livestock, the sons of Israel took as their plunder; but they struck every man with the edge of the sword, until they had destroyed them. They left no one who breathed. 15 Just as Jehovah had commanded Moses his servant, so Moses commanded Joshua, and so Joshua did; he left nothing undone of all that Jehovah had commanded Moses.

Summary of Joshua’s Conquests

16 Thus Joshua took all that land: the hill country and all the Negev,[48] all that land of Goshen, the lowland, the Arabah, the hill country of Israel and its lowland 17 from Mount Halak, that rises toward Seir, even as far as Baal-gad in the Valley of Lebanon under[49] Mount Hermon. And he captured all their kings and struck them and put them to death. 18 Joshua made war a long time with all those kings. 19 There was not a city which made peace with the sons of Israel except the Hivites, the inhabitants of Gibeon; they took them all in battle. 20 For it was of Jehovah to harden their hearts, to meet Israel in battle in order that he might utterly destroy them, that they might receive no mercy, but that he might destroy them, just as Jehovah commanded Moses.

21 And Joshua came at that time and cut off the Anakim from the hill country, from Hebron, from Debir, from Anab and from all the hill country of Judah and from all the hill country of Israel. Joshua utterly destroyed them with their cities. 22 There was none of the Anakim left in the land of the sons of Israel; only in Gaza, in Gath, and in Ashdod did some remain. 23 So Joshua took the whole land, according to all that Jehovah had spoken to Moses, and Joshua gave it for an inheritance to Israel according to their divisions by their tribes. And the land had rest from war.

Kings Defeated East of the Jordan by Moses

12 Now these are the kings of the land whom the sons of Israel defeated, and whose land they took possession of beyond the Jordan toward the sunrise, from the Valley of the Arnon as far as Mount Hermon, and all the Arabah to the east: Sihon king of the Amorites who lived at Heshbon and ruled from Aroer, which is on the edge of the Valley of the Arnon, and from the middle of the valley and half of Gilead as far as Jabbok the river, the border of the sons of Ammon, and the Arabah as far as the Sea of Chinneroth[50] toward the east, and as far as the sea of the Arabah, even the Salt Sea,[51] eastward toward Beth-jeshimoth, and toward the south under[52] the slopes of Pisgah; 

and the territory of[53] Og king of Bashan, one of the remnant of Rephaim, who lived at Ashtaroth and at Edrei, and ruled over Mount Hermon and Salecah and all Bashan to the border of the Geshurites and the Maacathites, and over half of Gilead to the border of Sihon king of Heshbon. 

Moses, the servant of Jehovah, and the sons of Israel defeated them. And Moses the servant of Jehovah gave their land for a possession to the Reubenites and the Gadites and the half-tribe of Manasseh.

Kings Defeated West of the Jordan by Joshua

These are the kings of the land whom Joshua and the Israelites defeated on the west side of the Jordan, from Baal-gad in the Valley of Lebanon and as far as Mount Halak, which goes up to Seir, after which Joshua gave their land to the tribes of Israel as a possession according to their allotments, in the mountainous region, in the Shephelah, in the Arabah, on the slopes, in the wilderness, and in the Negev, the land of the Hittites, the Amorites, the Canaanites, the Perizzites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites: the king of Jericho, one; the king of Ai, which is beside Bethel, one; 10 the king of Jerusalem, one; the king of Hebron, one; 11 the king of Jarmuth, one; the king of Lachish, one; 12 the king of Eglon, one; the king of Gezer, one; 13 the king of Debir, one; the king of Geder, one; 14 the king of Hormah, one; the king of Arad, one; 15 the king of Libnah, one; the king of Adullam, one; 16 the king of Makkedah, one; the king of Bethel, one; 17 the king of Tappuah, one; the king of Hepher, one; 18 the king of Aphek, one; the king of Lasharon, one; 19 the king of Madon, one; the king of Hazor, one; 20 the king of Shimron-meron,[54] one; the king of Achshaph, one; 21 the king of Taanach, one; the king of Megiddo, one; 22 the king of Kedesh, one; the king of Jokneam in Carmel, one; 23 the king of Dor in Naphath-dor, one; the king of Goiim in Gilgal,[55] one; 24 the king of Tirzah, one: in all, thirty-one kings.

Land Still to Be Conquered

13 Now Joshua was old and advanced in years, and Jehovah said to him, “You are old and advanced in years, and there remains yet very much land to possess. This is the land that yet remains: all the regions of the Philistines, and all those of the Geshurites (from the Shihor,[56] which is east of[57] Egypt, northward to the border of Ekron, it is counted as Canaanite; there are five rulers of the Philistines, those of Gaza, Ashdod, Ashkelon, Gath, and Ekron), and those of the Avvim, in the south, all the land of the Canaanites, and Mearah[58] that belongs to the Sidonians, to Aphek, to the border of the Amorites, and the land of the Gebalites, and all Lebanon, toward the sunrise, from Baal-gad below Mount Hermon to Lebo-hamath,[59] all the inhabitants of the hill country from Lebanon to Misrephoth-maim, even all the Sidonians. I myself will drive them out from before the sons of Israel. Only allot the land to Israel for an inheritance, as I have commanded you. Now therefore divide this land for an inheritance to the nine tribes and half the tribe of Manasseh.”

The Inheritance Divisions East of the Jordan

With the other half of the tribe of Manasseh[60] the Reubenites and the Gadites received their inheritance, which Moses gave them, beyond the Jordan eastward, as Moses the servant of Jehovah gave them: from Aroer, which is on the edge of the Valley of the Arnon, and the city that is in the middle of the valley, and all the tableland[61] of Medeba as far as Dibon; 10 and all the cities of Sihon king of the Amorites, who reigned in Heshbon, as far as the border of the sons of Ammon; 11 and Gilead, and the territory of the Geshurites and Maacathites, and all Mount Hermon, and all Bashan to Salecah; 12 all the kingdom of Og in Bashan, who reigned in Ashtaroth and in Edrei (he alone was left of the remnant of the Rephaim); these Moses had struck and driven out.[62] 13 Yet the sons of Israel did not drive out[63] the Geshurites or the Maacathites, but Geshur and Maacath dwell in the midst of Israel to this day.

14 To the tribe of Levi alone Moses gave no inheritance. The offerings by fire to Jehovah God of Israel are their inheritance, as he said to him.

Reuben’s Inheritance

15 And Moses gave an inheritance to the tribe of the sons of Reuben according to their clans. 16 So their territory was from Aroer, which is on the edge of the Valley of the Arnon, and the city that is in the middle of the valley, and all the tableland by Medeba; 17 with Heshbon, and all its cities that are in the tableland; Dibon, and Bamoth-baal, and Beth-baal-meon, 18 and Jahaz, and Kedemoth, and Mephaath, 19 and Kiriathaim, and Sibmah, and Zereth-shahar on the hill of the valley, 20 and Beth-peor, and the slopes of Pisgah, and Beth-jeshimoth, 21 and all the cities of the tableland, and all the kingdom of Sihon king of the Amorites, who reigned in Heshbon, whom Moses defeated with the leaders of Midian, Evi and Rekem and Zur and Hur and Reba, the princes of Sihon, who lived in the land. 22 Balaam also, the son of Beor, the diviner, was killed with the sword by the people of Israel among the rest of their slain. 23 And the border of the sons of Reuben was the Jordan as a border. This was the inheritance of the sons of Reuben, according to their families with their cities and villages.

Gad’s Inheritance

24 Moses also gave an inheritance to the tribe of Gad, to the sons of Gad, according to their families. 25 Their territory was Jazer, and all the cities of Gilead, and half the land of the sons Ammon, to Aroer, which is east of Rabbah, 26 and from Heshbon to Ramath-mizpeh and Betonim, and from Mahanaim to the territory of Debir, 27 and in the valley Beth-haram, Beth-nimrah, Succoth, and Zaphon, the rest of the kingdom of Sihon king of Heshbon, having the Jordan as a border, to the lower end of the Sea of Chinnereth, eastward beyond the Jordan. 28 This is the inheritance of the sons of Gad according to their families, with their cities and villages.

Manasseh’s Inheritance in the East

29 And Moses gave an inheritance to the half-tribe of Manasseh. It was allotted to the half-tribe of the sons of Manasseh according to their families. 30 Their region extended from Mahanaim, through all Bashan, the whole kingdom of Og king of Bashan, and all the towns of Jair, which are in Bashan, sixty cities, 31 and half Gilead, and Ashtaroth, and Edrei, the cities of the kingdom of Og in Bashan. These were allotted to the sons of Machir the son of Manasseh for the half of the sons of Machir according to their families.

32 These are the inheritances that Moses distributed in the plains of Moab, beyond the Jordan east of Jericho. 

Jehovah is Levites’ Inheritance

33 But to the tribe of Levi Moses gave no inheritance; Jehovah God of Israel is their inheritance, just as he said to them.

The Inheritance Divisions West of the Jordan

14 Now these are the inheritances which the sons of Israel took in the land of Canaan, which Eleazar the priest, and Joshua the son of Nun, and the heads of the fathers’ houses of the tribes of the sons of Israel, distributed to them. Their inheritance was by lot, just as Jehovah commanded by Moses, for the nine tribes, and for the half-tribe. For Moses had given the inheritance of the two tribes and the half-tribe beyond the Jordan: but to the Levites he gave no inheritance among them. For the sons of Joseph were two tribes, Manasseh and Ephraim: and they gave no portion to the Levites in the land, except cities to dwell in, with their pasture lands for their livestock and for their substance. As Jehovah commanded Moses, so the sons of Israel did; and they divided the land.

Caleb's Request and Inheritance of Hebron

Then the sons of Judah drew nigh to Joshua in Gilgal: and Caleb the son of Jephunneh the Kenizzite said to him, “You know the word that Jehovah spoke to Moses the man of God concerning me and concerning you in Kadesh-barnea. Forty years old was I when Moses the servant of Jehovah sent me from Kadesh-barnea to spy out the land; and I brought him word again as it was in my heart. Nevertheless my brothers that went up with me made the heart of the people melt; but I wholly followed Jehovah my God. And Moses swore on that day, saying, ‘Surely the land where your foot has trodden shall be an inheritance to you and to your children forever, because you have wholly followed Jehovah my God.’ 10 And now, look, Jehovah has kept me alive, as he spoke, these forty-five years, from the time that Jehovah spoke this word to Moses, while Israel walked in the wilderness: and now, look, I am this day eighty-five years old. 11 I am as strong this day as I was in the day that Moses sent me: as my strength was then, even so is my strength now, for war, and to go out and to come in. 12 Now therefore give me this hill country, where Jehovah spoke in that day; for you heard in that day how the Anakim were there, and cities great and fortified: it may be that Jehovah will be with me, and I shall drive them out, as Jehovah spoke.”

13 And Joshua blessed him; and he gave Hebron to Caleb the son of Jephunneh for an inheritance. 14 Therefore Hebron became the inheritance of Caleb the son of Jephunneh the Kenizzite to this day; because he wholly followed Jehovah, the God of Israel. 15 Now the name of Hebron was previously Kiriath-arba; for Arba was the greatest man among the Anakim.[64] Then the land was at rest from war.

Judah’s Inheritance

15 And the lot for the tribe of the sons of Judah according to their families was to the border of Edom, even to the wilderness of Zin southward, at the uttermost part of the south. And their south border was from the uttermost part of the Salt Sea,[65] from the bay that faces southward. And it went out southward of the ascent of Akrabbim, and passed along to Zin, and went up by the south of Kadesh-barnea, and passed along by Hezron, and went up to Addar, and turned about to Karka, and it passed along to Azmon, and went out at the brook of Egypt; and the border ended at the sea.[66] This shall be your south border.[67]

And the east border was the Salt Sea,[68] as far as the mouth of the Jordan. And the border of the north side was from the bay of the sea at the mouth of the Jordan. And the border went up to Beth-hoglah, and passed along by the north of Beth-arabah; and the border went up to the stone of Bohan the son of Reuben And the border went up to Debir from the Valley of Achor, and so northward, turning toward Gilgal, that is over against the ascent of Adummim, which is on the south side of the river; and the border passed along to the waters of En-shemesh and ended at En-rogel Then the border went up by the Valley of the Son of Hinnom to the side of the Jebusite southward (that is, Jerusalem); and the border went up to the top of the mountain that lies before the Valley of Hinnom westward, which is at the uttermost part of the Valley of Rephaim northward. Then the border extended from the top of the mountain to the spring of the waters of Nephtoah and continued to the cities of Mount Ephron; and the border extended to Baalah (that is, Kiriath-jearim). 10 And the border turned about from Baalah westward to Mount Seir and continued to the slope of Mount Jearim on the north (that is, Chesalon), and went down to Beth-shemesh and continued through Timnah. 11 The border proceeded to the side of Ekron northward. Then the border curved to Shikkeron and continued to Mount Baalah and proceeded to Jabneel, and the border ended at the sea. 

12 The west border was at the Great Sea,[69] even its coastline. This is the border around the sons of Judah according to their families.

Caleb’s Daughter Receives Land

13 And to Caleb the son of Jephunneh he gave a portion among the sons of Judah, according to the command of Jehovah to Joshua, namely, Kiriath-arba, Arba being the father of Anak (that is, Hebron). 14 Caleb drove out from there the three sons of Anak: Sheshai and Ahiman and Talmai, the sons of Anak. 15 Then he went up from there against the inhabitants of Debir; now the name of Debir formerly was Kiriath-sepher. 16 And Caleb said, “Whoever strikes Kiriath-sepher and captures it, to him will I give Achsah my daughter as wife.” 17 Othniel the son of Kenaz, the brother of Caleb, captured it; so, he gave him Achsah his daughter as a wife. 18 It came about that when she came to him, she urged him[70] to ask her father for a field. So, she alighted from the donkey, and Caleb said to her, “What do you want?” 19 Then she said, “Give me a blessing; since you have given me the land of the Negev,[71] give me also Gulloth-maim.”[72] So, he gave her the upper Gulloth[73] and the lower Gulloth.[74]

Cities of Judah

20 This is the inheritance of the tribe of the sons of Judah according to their families.

21 And the uttermost cities of the tribe of the sons of Judah toward the border of Edom in the south were Kabzeel, and Eder, and Jagur, 22 and Kinah and Dimonah and Adadah, 23 and Kedesh and Hazor and Ithnan, 24 Ziph and Telem and Bealoth, 25 and Hazor-hadattah and Kerioth-hezron (that is, Hazor), 26 Amam and Shema and Moladah, 27 and Hazar-gaddah and Heshmon and Beth-pelet, 28 and Hazar-shual and Beersheba and Biziothiah, 29 Baalah and Iim and Ezem, 30 and Eltolad and Chesil and Hormah, 31 and Ziklag and Madmannah and Sansannah, 32 and Lebaoth and Shilhim and Ain and Rimmon; in all, twenty-nine cities with their villages.

33 In the lowland: Eshtaol and Zorah and Ashnah, 34 and Zanoah and En-gannim, Tappuah and Enam, 35 Jarmuth and Adullam, Socoh and Azekah, 36 and Shaaraim and Adithaim and Gederah and Gederothaim; fourteen cities with their villages.

37 Zenan and Hadashah and Migdal-gad, 38 and Dilean and Mizpeh and Joktheel, 39 Lachish and Bozkath and Eglon, 40 and Cabbon and Lahmas and Chitlish, 41 and Gederoth, Beth-dagon and Naamah and Makkedah; sixteen cities with their villages.

42 Libnah and Ether and Ashan, 43 and Iphtah and Ashnah and Nezib, 44 and Keilah and Achzib and Mareshah; nine cities with their villages.

45 Ekron, with its surrounding towns[75] and its villages; 46 from Ekron even to the sea, all that were by the side of Ashdod, with their villages.

47 Ashdod, its surrounding towns and its villages; Gaza, its surrounding towns and its villages; as far as the Brook of Egypt and the Great Sea,[76] even its border.[77]

48 And in the hill country: Shamir and Jattir and Socoh, 49 and Dannah and Kiriath-sannah (that is, Debir), 50 and Anab and Eshtemoh and Anim, 51 and Goshen and Holon and Giloh; eleven cities with their villages.

52 Arab and Dumah[78] and Eshan, 53 and Janum and Beth-tappuah and Aphekah, 54 and Humtah and Kiriath-arba (that is, Hebron), and Zior; nine cities with their villages.

55 Maon, Carmel and Ziph and Juttah, 56 and Jezreel and Jokdeam and Zanoah, 57 Kain, Gibeah and Timnah; ten cities with their villages.

58 Halhul, Beth-zur and Gedor, 59 and Maarath and Beth-anoth and Eltekon; six cities with their villages.[79]

60 Kiriath-baal (that is, Kiriath-jearim), and Rabbah; two cities with their villages.

61 In the wilderness: Beth-arabah, Middin and Secacah, 62 and Nibshan and the City of Salt and Engedi; six cities with their villages.

63 Now as for the Jebusites, the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the sons of Judah could not drive them out; so, the Jebusites dwell with the sons of Judah at Jerusalem until this day.

Inheritance of Joseph’s Descendants

16 And the allotment of the sons of Joseph from the Jordan at Jericho, at the waters of Jericho on the east, into the wilderness, going up from Jericho through the hill country to Bethel. It went out from Bethel to Luz[80] and passed along to the border of the Archites to Ataroth. It went down westward to the territory of the Japhletites, as far as the territory of lower Beth-horon then to Gezer, and it ended[81] at the sea.

The sons of Joseph, Manasseh and Ephraim, received their inheritance.

Ephraim’s Inheritance

This was the territory of the sons of Ephraim according to their families: the border of their inheritance eastward was Ataroth-addar, as far as Upper Beth-horon. And the border went westward at Michmethath on the north, and the border turned about eastward to Taanath-shiloh and continued beyond it to the east of Janoah. Then it went down from Janoah to Ataroth and to Naarah, and then reached Jericho and came out at the Jordan. From Tappuah the border continued westward to the brook of Kanah and ends[82] at the sea. This is the inheritance of the tribe of the sons of Ephraim according to their families, together with the cities which were set apart for the sons of Ephraim in the midst of the inheritance of the sons of Manasseh, all the cities with their villages. 

10 But they did not drive out[83] the Canaanites who lived in Gezer, so the Canaanites dwelt in the midst of Ephraim to this day, and they became forced laborers.

Manasseh’s Inheritance in the West

17 And this was the lot for the tribe of Manasseh; for he was the firstborn of Joseph. As for Machir the firstborn of Manasseh, the father of Gilead, because he was a man of war; therefore, he received Gilead and Bashan So the lot[84] was for the rest of the sons of Manasseh according to their families: for the sons of Abiezer, and for the sons of Helek, and for the sons of Asriel, and for the sons of Shechem, and for the sons of Hepher, and for the sons of Shemida: these were the male sons of Manasseh the son of Joseph according to their families.

But Zelophehad, the son of Hepher, the son of Gilead, the son of Machir, the son of Manasseh, had no sons, only daughters; and these are the names of his daughters: Mahlah and Noah, Hoglah, Milcah and Tirzah. And they came near before Eleazar the priest, and before Joshua the son of Nun, and before the leaders, saying, “Jehovah commanded Moses to give us an inheritance among our brothers.” So, according to the commandment of Jehovah he gave them an inheritance among the brothers of their father. 

Thus there fell ten portions to Manasseh, besides the land of Gilead and Bashan, which is beyond the Jordan,[85] because the daughters of Manasseh received an inheritance among his sons. And the land of Gilead belonged to the rest of the sons of Manasseh.

And the border of Manasseh was from Asher to Michmethath, which faces Shechem;[86] and the border continued to the right[87] to the inhabitants of En-tappuah. The land of Tappuah belonged to Manasseh, but Tappuah on the border of Manasseh belonged to the sons of Ephraim. The border went down to the brook of Kanah, southward of the brook (these cities belonged to Ephraim among the cities of Manasseh), and the border of Manasseh was on the north side of the brook and it ended at the sea. 10 To the south it was Ephraim’s, and northward it was Manasseh’s, and the sea was his[88] border; and they reached to Asher on the north, and to Issachar on the east. 

11 In Issachar and in Asher, Manasseh had Beth-shean and its surrounding towns, and Ibleam and its surrounding towns, and the inhabitants of Dor and its surrounding towns, and the inhabitants of En-dor and its surrounding towns, and the inhabitants of Taanach and its surrounding towns, and the inhabitants of Megiddo and its surrounding towns, three of the heights.[89]

12 Yet the children of Manasseh could not drive out the inhabitants of those cities; but the Canaanites persisted in dwelling in that land. 13 And it came to about, when the sons of Israel grew strong, that they put the Canaanites to forced labor, and did not utterly drive them out.

Additional Land for Joseph’s Descendants

14 And the sons of Joseph spoke to Joshua, saying, “Why have you given me but one lot and one part for an inheritance, since I am a numerous people, Jehovah has blessed me until now?” 15 And Joshua said to them, “If you are a numerous people, go up to the forest, and cut down for yourself there in the land of the Perizzites and of the Rephaim; since the hill country of Ephraim is too narrow for you.” 16 And the sons of Joseph said, “The hill country is not enough for us: and all the Canaanites who dwell in the land of the valley have chariots of iron, both those who are in Beth-shean and its surrounding towns, and those who are in the valley of Jezreel.” 17 And Joshua spoke to the house of Joseph, even to Ephraim and to Manasseh, saying, “You are a numerous people, and have great power; you shall not have one lot only, 18 but the hill country shall be yours; for though it is a forest, you shall cut it down, and to its farthest borders it shall be yours; for you shall drive out the Canaanites, though they have chariots of iron, and though they are strong.”

Rest of the Land Distributed at Shiloh

18 Then the whole congregation of the sons of Israel assembled themselves at Shiloh and set up the tent of meeting there; and the land was subdued before them.

And there remained among the sons of Israel seven tribes, who had not yet divided their inheritance. And Joshua said to the sons of Israel, “How long will you put off going in to take possession of the land that Jehovah the God of your forefathers has given you? Appoint for you three men of each tribe: and I will send them, and they shall arise, and walk through the land, and describe it according to their inheritance; and they shall come to me. And they shall divide it into seven portions: Judah shall remain in his territory to the south, and the house of Joseph shall remain in their territory to the north. And you shall describe the land into seven portions, and bring the description here to me; and I will cast lots for you here before Jehovah our God. The Levites have no portion among you, for the priesthood of Jehovah is their inheritance. And Gad and Reuben and half the tribe of Manasseh have received their inheritance beyond the Jordan eastward, which Moses the servant of Jehovah gave them.”

And the men arose, and went: and Joshua charged them that went to describe the land, saying, “Go and walk through the land, and describe it, and return to me; and I will cast lots for you here before Jehovah in Shiloh.” And the men went and passed through the land, and described it by cities into seven portions in a book; and they came to Joshua unto the camp at Shiloh. 10 And Joshua cast lots for them in Shiloh before Jehovah: and there Joshua divided the land to the sons of Israel according to their divisions.

Benjamin’s Inheritance

11 And the lot of the tribe of the sons of Benjamin came up according to their families: and the border of their lot lay between the sons of Judah and the sons of Joseph. 12 And their border on the north side was from the Jordan; and the border went up to the side of Jericho on the north and went up through the hill country westward; and it ended at the wilderness of Beth-aven. 13 And the border passed along from there to Luz, to the side of Luz (the same is Beth-el), southward; and the border went down to Ataroth-addar, by the mountain that is on the south of Lower Beth-horon. 14 And the border extended from there and turned around at the western side to the south from the mountain that faces Beth-horon southward; and it ended at Kiriath-baal (that is, Kiriath-jearim), a city of the sons of Judah: this was the west side. 15 And the south side was from the extremity of Kiriath-jearim; and the border went westward and went to the fountain of the waters of Nephtoah; 16 and the border went down to the extremity of the mountain that faces the valley of the Son of Hinnom,[90] which is in the valley of Rephaim northward; and it went down to the valley of Hinnom, to the side of the Jebusite southward, and went down to En-rogel. 17 And it extended northward, and went to En-shemesh, and went to Geliloth, which is opposite the ascent of Adummim; and it went down to the stone of Bohan the son of Reuben. 18 And it passed along to the side opposite the Arabah[91] northward and went down to the Arabah; 19 And the border passed along to the side of Beth-hoglah northward; and the border ended at the north bay of the Salt Sea,[92] at the south end of the Jordan: this was the south border. 20 And the Jordan was the border on the east side. This was the inheritance of the sons of Benjamin, its borders all around them, according to their families.

21 Now the cities of the tribe of the sons of Benjamin according to their families were Jericho and Beth-hoglah and Emek-keziz, 22 and Beth-arabah and Zemaraim and Bethel, 23 and Avvim and Parah and Ophrah, 24 and Chephar-ammoni and Ophni and Geba; twelve cities with their villages. 25 Gibeon and Ramah and Beeroth, 26 and Mizpeh and Chephirah and Mozah, 27 and Rekem and Irpeel and Taralah, 28 and Zelah, Haeleph and the Jebusite[93] (that is, Jerusalem), Gibeah, Kiriath;[94] fourteen cities[95] with their villages. This is the inheritance of the sons of Benjamin according to their families.

Simeon’s Inheritance

19 The second lot came out for Simeon, for the tribe of the sons of Simeon, according to their families, and their inheritance was in the midst of the inheritance of the sons of Judah. And they had for their inheritance Beersheba, Sheba,[96] Moladah, and Hazar-shual, and Balah, and Ezem, and Eltolad and Bethul and Hormah, and Ziklag and Beth-marcaboth and Hazar-susah, and Beth-lebaoth and Sharuhen; thirteen cities with their villages; Ain, Rimmon and Ether and Ashan; four cities with their villages; and all the villages which were around these cities as far as Baalath-beer, Ramah of the Negev.[97] This was the inheritance of the tribe of the sons of Simeon according to their families. Part of the portion allotted to the sons of Judah was the inheritance of the sons of Simeon; for the portion of the sons of Judah was too much for them: therefore, the sons of Simeon obtained an inheritance in the midst of their inheritance.

Zebulun’s Inheritance

10 The third lot came up for the sons of Zebulun according to their families. And the territory of their inheritance was as far as Sarid. 11 Then their border went up westward and to Maralah, it then touched Dabbesheth and reached to the brook that is before Jokneam. 12 Then it turned from Sarid eastward toward the rising of the sun to the border of Chisloth-tabor and went out to Dabe·rath and went up to Japhia. 13 And from there it passed over eastward toward the sunrise to Gath-hepher, to Eth-kazin, and went out to Rimmon which was marked out to Neah. 14 And the border went around it on the north to Hannathon and it ended at the Valley of Iphtahel; 15 and Kattath and Nahalal and Shimron and Idalah and Bethlehem; twelve cities and their villages. 16 This is the inheritance of the sons of Zebulun according to their families, these cities with their villages.

Issachar’s Inheritance

17 The fourth lot came out for Issachar, for the sons of Issachar according to their families. 18 And their border was to Jezreel, and Chesulloth, and Shunem, 19 and Hapharaim and Shion and Anaharath, 20 and Rabbith and Kishion and Ebez, 21 and Remeth and En-gannim and En-haddah and Beth-pazzez. 22 And the border reached to Tabor and Shahazumah and Beth-shemesh, and their border ended at the Jordan; sixteen cities with their villages. 23 This is the inheritance of the tribe of the sons of Issachar according to their families, the cities with their villages.

Asher’s Inheritance

24 And the fifth lot came out for the tribe of the sons of Asher according to their families. 25 And their border was Helkath, and Hali, and Beten, and Achshaph, 26 and Allammelech, and Amad, and Mishal; and it reached to Carmel westward, and to Shihor-libnath. 27 and it turned toward the sunrising to Beth-dagon, and reached to Zebulun, and to the valley of Iphtahel northward to Beth-emek and Neiel; and it went out to Cabul on the left, 28 and Ebron[98] and Rehob and Hammon and Kanah, as far as Great Sidon. 29 Then the border turned to Ramah, and to the fortified city of Tyre; and the border turned to Hosah; and it ended at the sea in the region of Achzib;[99] 30 Ummah also, and Aphek, and Rehob: twenty-two cities with their villages. 31 This is the inheritance of the tribe of the sons of Asher according to their families, these cities with their villages.

Naphtali’s Inheritance

32 Their border was from Heleph, from the oak in Zaanannim and Adami-nekeb and Jabneel, as far as Lakkum, and it ended at the Jordan. 33 And their boundary ran from Heleph, fromthe oak in Zaanannim, and Adami-nekeb, and Jabneel, as far as Lakkum, and it ended at the Jordan. 34 Then the border turned westward to Aznoth-tabor and went out from there to Hukkok; and it reached to Zebulun on the south and touched Asher on the west, and to Judah[100] at the Jordan toward the sunrising. 35 The fortified cities were Ziddim, Zer and Hammath, Rakkath and Chinnereth, 36 and Adamah and Ramah and Hazor, 37 and Kedesh and Edrei and En-hazor, 38 and Yiron and Migdal-el, Horem and Beth-anath and Beth-shemesh; nineteen cities with their villages. 39 This is the inheritance of the tribe of the sons of Naphtali according to their families, the cities with their villages.

Dan’s Inheritance

40 The seventh lot came out for the tribe of the sons of Dan according to their families. 41 And the border of their inheritance was Zorah, and Eshtaol, and Ir-shemesh, 42 and Shaalabbin and Aijalon and Ithlah, 43 and Elon and Timnah and Ekron, 44 and Eltekeh and Gibbethon and Baalath, 45 and Jehud[101] and Bene-berak and Gath-rimmon, 46 and Me-jarkon, and Rakkon, with the border over against Joppa. 47 And the border of the sons of Dan went out beyond them; for the sons of Dan went up and fought against Leshem, and took it, and struck it with the edge of the sword, and possessed it, and dwelt in it, and called Leshem, Dan, after the name of Dan their forefather. 48 This is the inheritance of the tribe of the sons of Dan according to their families, these cities with their villages.

Joshua’s Inheritance

49 When they made an end of distributing the land for inheritance by the borders, the sons of Israel gave an inheritance to Joshua the son of Nun in the midst of them. 50 According to the commandment of Jehovah they gave him the city which he asked, Timnath-serah in the hill country of Ephraim; and he built the city and dwelt in it.

51 These are the inheritances that Eleazar the priest and Joshua the son of Nun and the heads of the fathers’ houses of the tribes of the sons of Israel distributed by lot at Shiloh before Jehovah, at the entrance of the tent of meeting. So, they finished dividing the land.

The Cities of Refuge

20 And Jehovah spoke to Joshua, saying, “Speak to the sons of Israel, saying, ‘Assign you the cities of refuge, of which I spoke to you through Moses, so that the manslayer who strikes a soul unintentionally and unknowingly may flee there; and they must serve you as a refuge from the avenger[102] of blood. And he shall flee to one of those cities and shall stand at the entrance of the gate of the city and declare his case in the ears of the elders of that city; and they shall take him into the city to them, and give him a place, that he may dwell among them. Now if the avenger of blood pursues him, then they shall not deliver the manslayer into his hand, because he struck his neighbor unknowingly and did not hate him previously. And he shall dwell in that city until he stands before the congregation for judgment, until the death of the one who is high priest in those days. Then the manslayer shall return to his own city and to his own house, to the city from which he fled.’”

So they set apart Kedesh in Galilee in the hill country of Naphtali and Shechem in the hill country of Ephraim, and Kiriath-arba (that is, Hebron) in the hill country of Judah. And beyond the Jordan at Jericho eastward, they assigned Bezer in the wilderness in the plain out of the tribe of Reuben, and Ramoth in Gilead out of the tribe of Gad, and Golan in Bashan out of the tribe of Manasseh. These were the appointed cities for all the sons of Israel and for the stranger who sojourns among them, that whoever strikes a soul unintentionally may flee there, and not die by the hand of the avenger of blood until he stands before the congregation.

Cities and Pasturelands Allotted to the Levites

21 Then came near the heads of fathers’ houses of the Levites to Eleazar the priest, and to Joshua the son of Nun, and to the heads of fathers’ houses of the tribes of the sons of Israel. And they spoke to them at Shiloh in the land of Canaan, saying, “Jehovah commanded Moses to give us cities to dwell in, with their pasturelands for our livestock. And the sons of Israel gave to the Levites out of their inheritance, according to the commandment of Jehovah, these cities with their pasturelands.

And the lot came out for the families of the Kohathites: and the sons of Aaron the priest, who were of the Levites, had by lot out of the tribe of Judah, and out of the tribe of the Simeonites, and out of the tribe of Benjamin, thirteen cities.

And the rest of the sons of Kohath had by lot out of the families of the tribe[103] of Ephraim, and out of the tribe of Dan, and out of the half-tribe of Manasseh, ten cities.

And the sons of Gershon had by lot out of the families of the tribe of Issachar, and out of the tribe of Asher, and out of the tribe of Naphtali, and out of the half-tribe of Manasseh in Bashan, thirteen cities.

The sons of Merari according to their families had out of the tribe of Reuben, and out of the tribe of Gad, and out of the tribe of Zebulun, twelve cities.

And the sons of Israel gave by lot unto the Levites these cities with their pasturelands, as Jehovah commanded through the hand of Moses.

For Aaron’s Descendants

And they gave out of the tribe of the sons of Judah, and out of the tribe of the sons of Simeon, these cities which are here mentioned by name, 10 and they were for the sons of Aaron, of the families of the Kohathites, who were of the sons of Levi; for theirs was the first lot. 11 And they gave them Kiriath-arba, which Arba was the father of Anak (the same is Hebron), in the hill-country of Judah, with the pasturelands all around it. 12 But the fields of the city, and the villages they gave to Caleb the son of Jephunneh as his possession.

13 And to the sons of Aaron the priest they gave Hebron, the city of refuge for the manslayer, with its pasturelands, and Libnah with its pasturelands, 14 and Jattir with its pasturelands and Eshtemoa with its pasturelands, 15 and Holon[104] with its pasturelands and Debir with its pasturelands, 16 and Ain[105] with its pasturelands and Juttah with its pasturelands and Beth-shemesh with its pasturelands; nine cities out of these two tribes. 17 Then out of the tribe of Benjamin, Gibeon with its pasturelands, Geba with its pasturelands, 18 Anathoth with its pasturelands and Almon[106] with its pasturelands; four cities. 19 All the cities of the sons of Aaron, the priests, were thirteen cities with their pasturelands.

For the Rest of the Kohathites

20 And the families of the sons of Kohath, the Levites, the rest of the sons of Kohath, they had the cities of their lot out of the tribe of Ephraim. 21 They gave them Shechem, the city of refuge for the manslayer, with its pasturelands, in the hill country of Ephraim, and Gezer with its pasturelands, 22 and Kibzaim[107] with its pasturelands and Beth-horon with its pasturelands; four cities. 23 And out of the tribe of Dan, Elteke with its pasturelands, Gibbethon with its pasturelands, 24 Aijalon with its pasturelands, Gath-rimmon with its pasturelands; four cities. 25 And out of the half-tribe of Manasseh, Taanach with its pasturelands, and Gath-rimmon with its pasturelands; two cities. 26 All the cities with their pasturelands for the families of the rest of the sons of Kohath were ten.

For the Gershonites

27 And to the sons of Gershon, one of the families of the Levites, out of the half-tribe of Manasseh, they gave Golan in Bashan, the city of refuge for the manslayer, with its pasturelands, and Be-eshterah[108] with its pasturelands; two cities. 28 And out of the tribe of Issachar, Kishion with its pasturelands, Daberath with its pasturelands, 29 Jarmuth[109] with its pasturelands, En-gannim with its pasturelands; four cities. 30 and out of the tribe of Asher, Mishal with its pasturelands, Abdon with its pasturelands, 31 Helkath with its pasturelands, and Rehob with its pasturelands; four cities. 32 And out of the tribe of Naphtali, Kedesh in Galilee with its pasturelands, the city of refuge for the manslayer, Hammoth-dor with its pasturelands, and Kartan[110] with its pasturelands; three cities. 33 All the cities of the Gershonites according to their families were thirteen cities with their pasturelands.

For the Merarites

34 To the families of the sons of Merari, the rest of the Levites, were given out the tribe of Zebulun, Jokneam with its pasturelands and Kartah with its pasturelands. 35 Dimnah[111] with its pasturelands, Nahalal with its pasturelands; four cities. 36 And out of the tribe of Reuben, Bezer with its pasturelands, Jahaz with its pasturelands, 37 Kedemoth with its pasturelands, and Mephaath with its pasturelands; four cities.[112] 38 And out of the tribe of Gad, Ramoth in Gilead with its pasturelands, the city of refuge for the manslayer, Mahanaim with its pasturelands, 39 Heshbon with its pasturelands, Jazer with its pasturelands; four cities in all. 40 All these were the cities of the sons of Merari according to their families, the rest of the families of the Levites; and their lot was twelve cities.

41 All the cities of the Levites in the midst of the possession of the sons of Israel were forty-eight cities with their pasturelands. 42 These cities each had its pasturelands all around it; thus, it was with all these cities.

Jehovah’s Promises Fulfilled

43 So Jehovah gave to Israel all the land which he swore to give to their forefathers; and they possessed it and dwelt in it. 44 And Jehovah gave them rest all around, according to all that he swore to their forefathers: and there not a man stood of all their enemies before them; Jehovah gave all their enemies into their hand. 45 Not one word failed out of all the good promises that Jehovah had made to the house of Israel; all came to pass.

The Eastern Tribes Return Home

22 Then Joshua summoned the Reubenites and the Gadites and the half-tribe of Manasseh, and said to them, “You have kept all that Moses the servant of Jehovah commanded you and have listened to my voice in all that I commanded you. You have not forsaken your brothers these many days to this day but have kept the charge of the commandment of Jehovah your God. And now Jehovah your God has given rest to your brothers, as he spoke to them; therefore, turn now and go to your tents, to the land of your possession, which Moses the servant of Jehovah gave you beyond the Jordan.[113] Only be very careful to do the commandment and the law which Moses the servant of Jehovah commanded you, to love Jehovah your God, and to walk in all his ways, and to keep his commandments, and to cling to him, and to serve him with all your heart and with all your soul.” 

So Joshua blessed them and sent them away, and they went to their tents.[114] Now to the one half-tribe of Manasseh Moses had given inheritance in Bashan; but to the other half gave Joshua among their brothers beyond the Jordan westward. So, when Joshua sent them away to their tents, he blessed them, and spoke to them, saying, “Return to your tents with great riches and with very much livestock, with silver, gold, copper, iron, and with very many clothes; divide the spoil of your enemies with your brothers.”

Altar Built at the Jordan

The sons of Reuben and the sons of Gad and the half-tribe of Manasseh returned home and departed from the sons of Israel at Shiloh, which is in the land of Canaan, to go to the land of Gilead, to the land of their possession which they had possessed, according to the command of Jehovah through Moses. 10 And when they came to the region of the Jordan, that is in the land of Canaan, the sons of Reuben and the sons of Gad and the half-tribe of Manasseh built there an altar by the Jordan, a great altar in appearance. 11 And the sons of Israel heard it said, “Look, the sons of Reuben and the sons of Gad and the half-tribe of Manasseh have built an altar at the frontier of the land of Canaan, in the region of the Jordan, on the side belonging to the sons of Israel.” 12 And when the sons of Israel heard of it, the whole congregation of the sons of Israel gathered themselves at Shiloh to go up against them in war.

Meaning of the Altar Explained

13 Then the sons of Israel sent to the sons of Reuben and to the sons of Gad and to the half-tribe of Manasseh, into the land of Gilead, Phinehas the son of Eleazar the priest, 14 and with him ten chiefs, one chief for each father’s household from each of the tribes of Israel; and each one of them was the head of his father’s household among the thousands of Israel. 15 And they came to the sons of Reuben and to the sons of Gad and to the half-tribe of Manasseh, to the land of Gilead, and they spoke with them saying, 

16 “Thus says the whole congregation of Jehovah, ‘What is this act of unfaithfulness which you have committed against the God of Israel, turning away this day from following Jehovah, by building yourselves an altar this day, to rebel against Jehovah? 17 Is not the error of Peor enough for us, from which we have not cleansed ourselves to this day, although a plague came on the congregation of Jehovah, 18 that you too must turn away this day from following Jehovah? And if you too rebel against Jehovah today then tomorrow he will be angry with the whole congregation of Israel. 19 If, however, the land of your possession is unclean, then cross over into Jehovah’s land where Jehovah’s tabernacle stands and take for yourselves a possession among us. Only do not rebel against Jehovah or rebel against us by building an altar for yourselves, besides the altar of Jehovah our God. 20 When Achan the son of Zerah committed an act of unfaithfulness regarding what was devoted to destruction, and wrath fall on all the congregation of Israel? And that man did not perish alone to die for his error.’”

21 Then the sons of Reuben and the sons of Gad and the half-tribe of Manasseh answered and spoke to the heads of the families of Israel.[115] 22 “The Mighty One, God, Jehovah, the Mighty One, God, Jehovah,[116] he knows; and Israel shall know: if it be in rebellion, or if in trespass against Jehovah do not save us this day, 23 if[117] we have built us an altar to turn away from following Jehovah; or if to offer a burnt offering or grain offering, or if to offer sacrifices of peace offerings on it, let Jehovah himself require it. 24 No, it was because of another concern that we did this, for we said, ‘In the future, your sons will say to our sons: ‘What is there to you and to Jehovah? [118] the God of Israel? 25 For Jehovah has made the Jordan a border between us and you, your sons of Reuben and sons of Gad; you have no portion in Jehovah. So, your sons might make our sons cease from fearing Jehovah.’ 

26 Therefore, we said, ‘Let us build an altar, not for burnt offering or for sacrifice; 27 but it shall be a witness between us and you, and between our generations after us, that we may perform the service of the Jehovah before him with our burnt offerings, and with our sacrifices, and with our peace offerings; that your sons may not say to our sons in time to come, “You have no portion in Jehovah.”’ 28 Therefore, we said, It shall be, when they so say to us or to our generations in time to come, that we shall say, “Look the pattern of the altar of Jehovah, which our forefathers made, not for burnt-offering, nor for sacrifice; but it is a witness between us and you.”’ 29 Far be it from us that we should rebel against Jehovah, and turn away this day from following Jehovah, to build an altar for burnt offering, for grain offering, or for sacrifice, besides the altar of Jehovah our God that is before his tabernacle.”

Tensions Resolved

30 So when Phinehas the priest and the leaders of the congregation, even the heads of the families of Israel[119] who were with him, heard the words which the sons of Reuben and the sons of Gad and the sons of Manasseh spoke, it was good in their eyes. 31 And Phinehas the son of Eleazar the priest said to the sons of Reuben and to the sons of Gad and to the sons of Manasseh, “Today we know that Jehovah is in our midst, because you have not committed this act of unfaithfulness against Jehovah; now you have delivered the sons of Israel from the hand of Jehovah.”

32 Then Phinehas the son of Eleazar the priest and the leaders returned from the sons of Reuben and from the sons of Gad, from the land of Gilead to the land of Canaan, to the sons of Israel, and brought back word to them. 33 The word pleased the sons of Israel, and the sons of Israel blessed God; and they did not speak of going up against them in war to destroy the land in which the sons of Reuben and the sons of Gad dwelt. 

34 The sons of Reuben and the sons of Gad[120] called the altar Witness; “For,” they said, “it is a witness between us that Jehovah is God.”

Joshua's Farewell to Israel's Leaders

23 And it came about after many days, when Jehovah had given rest to Israel from all their surrounding enemies, and Joshua was old and advanced in years, Joshua called for all Israel, for their elders and for their heads, and for their judges and for their officers, and said to them, “I am old and advanced in years. And you have seen all that Jehovah your God has done to all these nations because of you; for Jehovah your God, it is he who has fought for you. Look, I assigned to you by lot[121] these nations that remain, to be an inheritance for your tribes, from the Jordan, with all the nations that I have cut off, even to the Great Sea[122] toward the sunset. And Jehovah your God, he will thrust them out from before you, and drive them from out[123] of your sight; and you shall possess their land, as Jehovah your God spoke to you. 

Therefore, you be very courageous to keep and to do all that is written in the book of the law of Moses, that you do not turn aside from it to the right hand or to the left, that you may not mix with these nations, these that remain among you; neither make mention of the name of their gods, nor cause to swear by them, neither serve them, nor bow down to them, but cling to Jehovah your God, as you have done to this day. For Jehovah has driven out from before you great and strong nations. And as for you, no man has stood before you to this day. 10 One man of you shall chase a thousand; for Jehovah your God, he it is that fights for you, as he spoke to you. 11 So watch your souls carefully that you love Jehovah your God. 

12 But if you should turn back, and cling to the rest of these nations, even these that remain among you, and make marriages with them, so that you associate with them and they with you, 13 know for a certainty that Jehovah your God will no more drive these nations from out[124] of your sight; but they shall be a snare and a trap to you, and a scourge in your sides, and thorns in your eyes, until you perish from off this good land which Jehovah your God has given you.

14 “And, look, this day I am going the way of all the earth, and you know in all your hearts and in all your souls, that not one thing has failed of all the good things which Jehovah your God spoke concerning you; all have come to pass for you, not one thing has failed. 15 And it shall come about, just as all the good things that have come upon you of which Jehovah your God spoke to you, so will Jehovah bring upon you all the evil things, until he has destroyed you from off this good land which Jehovah your God has given you. 16 When you transgress the covenant of Jehovah your God, which he commanded you, and go and serve other gods, and bow down to them; then will the anger of Jehovah be kindled against you, and you shall perish quickly from off the good land which he has given to you.”

The Covenant Renewal at Shechem – Joshua Reviews the History of Israel

24 And Joshua gathered all the tribes of Israel to Shechem,[125] and called for the elders of Israel, and for their heads, and for their judges, and for their officers; and they presented themselves before God. And Joshua said to all the people, “Thus says Jehovah, the God of Israel, ‘Your forefathers dwelt a long time ago beyond the River,[126] even Terah, the forefather of Abraham, and the forefather of Nahor: and they served other gods.

And I took your forefather Abraham from beyond the River,[127] and led him throughout all the land of Canaan, and multiplied his offspring, and gave him Isaac. And I gave to Isaac Jacob and Esau, and I gave to Esau mount Seir, to possess it, and Jacob and his sons went down to Egypt. And I sent Moses and Aaron, and I plagued Egypt with what[128] I did in the midst of it, and afterward I brought you out.

“‘Then I brought your fathers out of Egypt, and you came to the sea. And the Egyptians pursued your fathers with chariots and horsemen to the Sea of Reeds.[129] And when they cried out to Jehovah, he put darkness between you and the Egyptians, and brought the sea upon them, and covered them; and your eyes saw what I did in Egypt: and you dwelt in the wilderness many days.[130] 

And I brought you into the land of the Amorites, that dwelt beyond[131] the Jordan: and they fought with you; and I gave them into your hand, and you took possession of their land; and I destroyed them from before you. Then Balak the son of Zippor, king of Moab, arose and fought against Israel, and he sent and summoned Balaam the son of Beor to curse you, 10 but I would not listen to Balaam; therefore, he blessed you still: so, I delivered you out of his hand. 11 And you went over the Jordan and came to Jericho: and the men of Jericho fought against you, the Amorite, and the Perizzite, and the Canaanite, and the Hittite, and the Girgashite, the Hivite, and the Jebusite. And I gave them into your hand. 12 And I sent the hornet before you, which drove them out from before you, even the two kings of the Amorites: not with your sword, nor with your bow. 13 I gave you a land on which you had not labored and cities that you had not built, and you dwell in them. You eat the fruit of vineyards and olive orchards that you did not plant.’

Choose Whom You Will Serve – Exhortation to Serve Jehovah

14 “Therefore, fear Jehovah and serve him with integrity and faithfulness, and remove the gods that your forefathers served on the other side of the River[132] and in Egypt and serve Jehovah. 15 Now if it seems bad to you to serve Jehovah, choose for yourselves today whom you will serve, whether the gods that your forefathers served on the other side of the River[133] or the gods of the Amorites in whose land you are dwelling. But as for me and my household, we will serve Jehovah.”

16 Then the people answered, “Far be it from us that we should forsake Jehovah to serve other gods, 17 for it is Jehovah our God who brought us and our fathers up from the land of Egypt, out of the house of slavery, and who did those great signs in our sight and preserved us in all the way that we went, and among all the peoples through whose midst we passed. 18 And Jehovah drove out from before us all the peoples, even the Amorites who dwelt in the land: therefore, we also will serve Jehovah; for he is our God.”

19 And Joshua said to the people, “You cannot serve Jehovah; for he is a holy God; he is a jealous God; he will not forgive your transgression nor your sins. 20 If you forsake Jehovah and serve foreign gods, then he will turn back and do you harm and consume you, after having done you good.” 

21 And the people said to Joshua, “No, but we will serve Jehovah.” 22 And Joshua said to the people, “You are witnesses against yourselves that you have chosen for yourselves Jehovah, to serve him.” And they said, “We are witnesses.” 

23 “Now, therefore, put away,” he said, “the foreign gods which are among you, and incline your heart to Jehovah, the God of Israel.” 24 And the people said to Joshua, “Jehovah our God will we serve, and to his voice will we listen.” 25 So Joshua made a covenant with the people that day and set them a statute and a judgment in Shechem.[134] 26 And Joshua wrote these words in the book of the law of God; and he took a large stone and set it up there under the oak that was by the sanctuary of Jehovah. 

Joshua’s Covenant with Israel

27 And Joshua said to all the people, “Look, this stone shall be a witness against us; for it has heard all the words of Jehovah which he spoke to us: it shall be therefore a witness against you, lest you deny your God.” 28 So Joshua sent the people away, every man to his inheritance.

Joshua's Death and Burial

29 And it came about after these things, that Joshua the son of Nun, the servant of Jehovah, died, being a hundred and ten years old. 30 And they buried him in the territory of his inheritance in Timnath-serah, which is in the hill country of Ephraim, on the north of Mount Gaash.

Joseph’s Bones Buried at Shechem

31 And Israel served Jehovah all the days of Joshua, and all the days of the elders that outlived Joshua, and had known all the work of Jehovah, that he had done for Israel.

32 As for the bones of Joseph, which the sons of Israel brought up from Egypt, they buried them at Shechem, in the piece of land that Jacob bought from the sons of Hamor the father of Shechem for one hundred qesitahs.[135] It[136] became an inheritance of the sons of Joseph.

Eleazar’s Death and Burial

33 Also, Eleazar the son of Aaron died. So, they buried him in the Hill of Phinehas[137] his son, which had been given to him in the hill country of Ephraim.

 

[1] Heb.Jehohshua, which means “Jehovah Is Salvation”; Gr., Ἰησοῖ (Iesoi, “Jesus”); SYR, “Jeshua”; VGc, “Josue.”

[2] That is, the Mediterranean

[3] MT “Reed Sea” or “Sea of Reeds” LXX “Red Sea”

[4] About 890 m (2,920 ft).

[5] Lit before the presence of the people

[6] Lit before the presence of the people

[7] Lit before the presence of the people

[8] The traditional identification is with Tell ed-Damiyeh on the east bank of the River Jordan about 0.6 mi (1 km) S of the confluence of the Jordan and the torrent valley of Jabbok; it is about 18 mi (30 km) NNE of Jericho. The Jordan has been dammed up the river on several occasions by landslides from the high limestone cliffs in 1267 C.E. and in 1927 C.E.

[9] That is, the Dead Sea

[10] That is, deeply respected

[11] That is, deeply respected

[12] MT VG “you” LXX SYR “them”

[13] MT VG “you” LXX SYR “they”

[14] MT “Reed Sea” or “Sea of Reeds” LXX “Red Sea”

[15] That is, to the west

[16] Meaning Hill of the Foreskins; VG “Hill of the Foreskins” LXX “the place called Hill of the Foreskins”

[17] Or the men of military age

[18] Meaning rolling

[19] Or valiant warriors, mighty warriors

[20] AT SYR VG “he” MT “they”

[21] LXX “lest you covet and take of the accursed thing” Or “lest ye set your mind upon and take of the accursed thing”

[22] Meaning quarries

[23] This is one of the 134 scribal changes from יהוה [JHVH] to אדני [Adonai]. The earliest MSS have the Tetragrammaton.

[24] A shekel equaled 11.4 g (0.367 oz t).

[25] Meaning disaster, ostracism

[26] Or the desert plain. That dry region that is part of the rift valley, that stretches toward the S from the hills of Mount Hermon, cradles the Sea of Galilee and the Jordan River, descends far beneath sea level to create the basin of the Dead Sea, and then proceeds on southward to the Gulf of ʽAqaba at the Red Sea.

[27] LXX lacks “or Bethel”

[28] Lit two hands

[29] MT “men” LXX “inhabitants”

[30] That is, Moses

[31] That is, living

[32] Or in the lowland

[33] That is, the Mediterranean

[34] LXX “and” VG “also” MT lacks it

[35] MT LXX SYR VG “they went and made ready provisions,” Some other Heb. MSS “they went disguised as ambassadors.”

[36] That is, the east side

[37] Or within their land

[38] MT LXX “they” The subject of the plural verb at the beginning of verse 2 is King Adoni-Zedek and the residents of Jerusalem. One Heb. MS SYR VG “he”

[39] Or the royal cities

[40] AT SYR “they” MT “he” being used in the collective sense, as a reference to Israel

[41] Or The Upright

[42] LXX some AT “he utterly destroyed it”

[43] Or the south. That is the southern part of the Promised Land. The Negev was an arid region in the southern part of Palestine, and its name came to mean south.

[44] Or in the plains

[45] That is, Sea of Galilee

[46] Or at the foot of, at the base of

[47] MT LXXB “they,” LXXA SYR VG “he”

[48] Or the south. That is the southern part of the Promised Land. The Negev was an arid region in the southern part of Palestine, and its name came to mean south.

[49] Or at the foot of, at the base of

[50] That is, the lake of Gennesaret, or the Sea of Galilee

[51] That is, the Dead Sea

[52] Or at the foot of, at the base of

[53] LXX lacks “the territory of”

[54] MT “Shimron-meron” SYR “Shimron and Meron”; LXXL VG “Shimron”

[55] MT “Gilgal” LXX “Galilee”

[56] Or the Nile

[57] Lit in front of

[58] VG “Maara”

[59] Or the entrance of Hamath

[60] LXX “to the two tribes and to the half tribe of Manasseh” MT “with it”

[61] Or plateau

[62] Or dispossessed them

[63] Or dispossess

[64] LXX “was city of Arbok [LXXB “Argob”], this is the mother city (metropolis) of the Anakim”

[65] That is, the Dead Sea

[66] That is, the Great Sea, the Mediterranean

[67] MT “your south border” LXX “their borders from the southwest” VG lacks

[68] That is, the Dead Sea

[69] That is, the Mediterranean

[70] MT “she urged him” LXX “he urged her”

[71] Or the south. That is the southern part of the Promised Land. The Negev was an arid region in the southern part of Palestine, and its name came to mean south.

[72] Meaning springs of water

[73] Meaning upper springs

[74] Meaning lower springs

[75] Lit its daughters

[76] That is, the Mediterranean. Lit “the sea of the border; the bordering sea MTmargin LXX SYR VG “the Great Sea”

[77] Or its coastline

[78] Some Heb. MSS “Rumah”

[79] LXX includes “Tekoa, Ephrathah—this is Bethlehem—Peor, Etam, Culon, Tatam, Sores, Carem, Gallim, Baither, and Manach; eleven cities and their villages”

[80] LXX lacks “to Luz”

[81] Lit the goings out of it were

[82] Lit the goings out of it were

[83] Or dispossess

[84] We have inserted “the lot” in the place of the third person pronoun “it” for the sense, which refers to “the lot” in verse 1. This is a common practice in all translations, including literal translations.

[85] That is, the east side

[86] Or which is east of Shechem

[87] Or toward the south

[88] MT “his” LXX SYR “their”

[89] The meaning of the Hebrew is uncertain

[90] Or the Valley of Ben Hinnom

[91] LXX “Beth-arabah”

[92] That is, the Dead Sea

[93] MT “the Jebusite” LXX SYR VG “Jebus”

[94] LXX SYR “Kiriath-jearim”

[95] LXX “thirteen cities”

[96] LXXB “Shema.”

[97] Or the south. That is the southern part of the Promised Land. The Negev was an arid region in the southern part of Palestine, and its name came to mean south.

[98] Some Heb. MSS have “Abdon” instead of “Ebron”

[99] LXXB “and toward Leb and Echozob”

[100] LXX lacks “Judah”

[101] Or Jazur LXXB “Azor”

[102] Or the goel

[103] MT “out of the families of the tribe” LXX SYR VG “out of the tribe of”

[104] “Hilen” in 1Ch 6:58

[105] “Ashan” in 15:42; 19:7; 1Ch 6:59

[106] “Alemeth” in 1Ch 6:60

[107] “Jokmeam” in 1Ch 6:68

[108] “Ashtaroth” in 1Ch 6:71

[109] “Remeth” in 19:21; “Ramoth” in 1Ch 6:73

[110] “Kiriathaim” in 1Ch 6:76

[111] “Rimmono” in 1Ch 6:77

[112] Some Heb. MSS LXX SYR VGc and 1Ch 6:63, 78-79 have Vss 36-37; SYR after vs 34; AC CC B 19A lack vss 36-37, clearly because of a scribal error made because vss 35, 37 both end with “four cities.”

[113] That is, the east side

[114] MT “to their homes” LXX “homes”

[115] Or the heads of the thousands of Israel

[116] Or the God of gods, Jehovah! The God of gods, Jehovah! (אֵל֩׀ אֱלֹהִ֨ים׀ יְהוָ֜ה אֵ֣ל׀ אֱלֹהִ֤ים׀ יְהוָה֙, ʼEl ׀ ʼElohimʹ ׀ Yehwahʹ, ʼEl ׀ ʼElohimʹ ׀ Yehwahʹ,) It has the dividing stroke (paseqʹ) between the words.

[117] LXX VG “and if” MT lacks

[118] Lit what to you and to Jehovah? This is a Hebrew idiom, a repulsive question intimating an objection, that means, what do you have to do with Jehovah.

[119] Or to the heads of the thousands of Israel

[120] LXX includes “and the half tribe of Manasseh” after “Gad.”

[121] Lit I caused to fall to for you LXX “I cast upon you” VG “he divided to you by lot”

[122] That is, the Mediterranean

[123] Or dispossessed them

[124] Or dispossess

[125] MT SYR VG “Shechem” LXX “Shiloh”

[126] That is, the Euphrates

[127] That is, the Euphrates

[128] LXXB “With what [things]” LXXA “with the signs that” MT “just as”

[129] MT “Reed Sea” or “Sea of Reeds” LXX “Red Sea”

[130] That is, many years

[131] That is, the east side

[132] That is, the Euphrates

[133] That is, the Euphrates

[134] MT SYR VG “Shechem” LXX “Shiloh”

[135] Or pieces of money; money of unknown value

[136] SYR VG “It” MT “they”

[137] LXX VG “in Gibeah of Phinehas”