- Author: Moses
- Place Written: Wilderness
- When Written: c. 1500 B.C.E.
1 In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.
2 The earth was without form and empty; and darkness was over the face of the deep, and the Spirit of God was moving over the surface of the waters.
First Creation Day
3 And God said, “Let there be light,” and there was light. 4 And God saw the light, that it was good, and God separated the light from the darkness. 5 And God called the light day, and the darkness he called night. And there was evening and there was morning, one day.
Second Creation Day
6 And God went on to say, “Let there be an expanse in the middle of the waters, and let there be a separation between the waters and the waters.” 7And God went on to make the expanse, and make a separation between the waters, which were under the expanse and between the waters, which were above the expanse: and it came to be so. 8 And God called the expanse heaven. And there was evening and there was morning, the second day.
Third Creation Day
9 And God went on to say, “Let the waters under the heavens be gathered together into one place, and let the dry land appear.” And it was so. 10 God called the dry land Earth, and the waters that were gathered together he called Seas. And God saw that it was good.
11 And God went on to say, “Let the earth sprout vegetation, plants yielding seed, and fruit trees bearing fruit in which is their seed, each according to its kind, on the earth.” And it was so. 12 The earth brought forth vegetation, plants yielding seed according to their own kinds, and trees bearing fruit in which is their seed, each according to its kind. And God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, the third day.
Fourth Creation Day
14 And God went on to say, “Let there be lights in the expanse of the heavens to separate the day from the night. And let them be for signs and for seasons, and for days and years, 15 and let them be lights in the expanse of the heavens to give light upon the earth.” And it was so. 16 And God went on to make the two great lights, the greater light to rule the day and the lesser light to rule the night, and the stars. 17 And God set them in the expanse of the heavens to give light on the earth, 18 to rule over the day and over the night, and to separate the light from the darkness. And God saw that it was good. 19 And there was evening and there was morning, the fourth day.
Fifth Creation Day
20 And God said, “Let the waters swarm with swarms of living souls, and let birds fly above the earth across the expanse of the heavens.” 21 So God went on to create the great sea creatures and every living soul that moves, with which the waters swarm, according to their kinds, and every winged bird according to its kind. And God saw that it was good. 22 And God blessed them, saying, “Be fruitful and multiply and fill the waters in the seas, and let birds multiply on the earth.” 23 And there was evening and there was morning, the fifth day.
Sixth Creation Day
24 And God went on to say, “Let the earth bring forth living souls according to their kinds, livestock and creeping things and beasts of the earth according to their kinds.” And it was so. 25 And God made the beasts of the earth according to their kinds and the livestock according to their kinds, and everything that creeps on the ground according to its kind. And God saw that it was good.
26 And God went on to say, “Let us make man in our image, after our likeness. And let them have dominion over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the heavens and over the livestock and over all the earth and over every creeping thing that creeps on the earth.”
27 So God created man in his own image,
in the image of God he created him;
male and female he created them.
28 And God blessed them. And God said to them, “Be fruitful and multiply and fill the earth and subdue it, and have dominion over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the heavens and over every living thing that moves on the earth.” 29 And God went on to say, “Behold, I have given you every plant yielding seed that is on the face of all the earth, and every tree with seed in its fruit. You shall have them for food. 30 And to every beast of the earth and to every bird of the heavens and to everything that creeps on the earth, in which there is a living soul, I have given every green plant for food.” And it was so. 31 And God saw everything that he had made, and behold, it was very good. And there was evening and there was morning, the sixth day.
2 Thus the heavens and the earth were completed, and all their hosts. 2 And by the seventh day God completed his work which he had done, and he rested on the seventh day from all his work which he had done. 3 Then God blessed the seventh day and sanctified it, because in it he rested from all his work which God had created and made.
The Creation of Man and Woman
5 Now no bush of the field was yet in the land and no small plant of the field had yet sprung up, for Jehovah God had not caused it to rain on the land, and there was no man to work the ground. 6 But there went up a mist from the earth, and watered the whole face of the ground.
7 Then Jehovah God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul. 8 And Jehovah God planted a garden toward the east, in Eden; and there he put the man whom he had formed. 9 And out of the ground Jehovah God caused to grow every tree that is pleasing to the sight and good for food; the tree of life also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.
10 Now a river flowed out of Eden to water the garden; and from there it divided and became four rivers. 11 The name of the first is Pishon; it flows around the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold. 12 And the gold of that land is good; bdellium and onyx stone are there. 13 The name of the second river is Gihon; it flows around the whole land of Cush. 14 The name of the third river is Tigris; it flows east of Assyria. And the fourth river is the Euphrates.
15 And Jehovah God took the man and set him in the garden of Eden to cultivate it and to keep it. 16 And Jehovah God commanded the man, saying, “From every tree of the garden you may freely eat, 17 but from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you shall not eat, for in the day that you eat from it you shall surely die.”
18 Then Jehovah God said, “It is not good for the man to be alone; I will make him a helper for him. 19 And out of the ground Jehovah God formed every beast of the field, and every bird of the heavens; and brought them to the man to see what he would call them; and whatsoever the man called every living soul, that was its name. 20 And the man gave names to all cattle, and to the birds of the heavens, and to every beast of the field; but for man there was found no helper as a counterpart of him. 21 So Jehovah God caused a deep sleep to fall upon the man, and he slept; then he took one of his ribs and closed up the flesh at that place. 22 And the rib that Jehovah God had taken from the man he made into a woman and brought her to the man.
23 Then the man said,
“This at last is bone of my bones
and flesh of my flesh;
she shall be called Woman,
because she was taken out of Man.”
24 Therefore a man shall leave his father and his mother and be joined to his wife, and they shall be as one flesh. 25 And the man and his wife were both naked and were not ashamed.
The Temptation and the Fall of Man
3 Now the serpent was more crafty than any beast of the field which Jehovah God had made. And he said to the woman, “Did God actually say, ‘You shall not eat of any tree in the garden’?” 2 And the woman said to the serpent, “From the fruit of the trees of the garden we may eat, 3 but from the tree that is in the midst of the garden, God said, ‘You shall not eat from it, nor shall you touch it, lest you die.’” 4 And the serpent said to the woman, “You shall not surely die. 5 For God knows that when you eat of it your eyes will be opened, and you will be like God, knowing good and evil.” knowing good and evil.
6 So when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was a delight to the eyes, and that the tree was to be desirable to make one wise, and she took of its fruit and ate, then she also gave some to her husband when with her, and he ate. 7 Then the eyes of both of them were opened, and they knew that they were naked; and they sewed fig leaves together and made themselves loin coverings.
The Costs of Sin
8 Then they heard the sound of Jehovah God walking in the garden at the wind of the day, and the man and his wife hid themselves from the presence of Jehovah God among the trees of the garden. 9 Then Jehovah God called to the man, and said to him, “Where are you?” 10 And he said, “I heard the sound of you in the garden, and I was afraid, because I was naked, and I hid myself.” 11 And he said, “Who told you that you were naked? Have you eaten from the tree of which I commanded you not to eat?” 12 The man said, “The woman whom you gave to be with me, she gave me from the tree, and I ate.” 13 Then Jehovah God said to the woman, “What is this you have done?” And the woman said, “The serpent deceived me, and I ate.”
14 Jehovah God said to the serpent,
“Because you have done this,
cursed are you above all livestock
and above all beasts of the field;
on your belly you shall go,
and dust you shall eat
all the days of your life.
15 And I will put enmity between you and the woman,
and between your seed and her seed;
he shall bruise your head,
and you shall bruise his heel.”
16 To the woman he said,
“I will surely multiply your pain in childbearing;
in pain you shall bring forth children.
Your desire shall be for your husband,
and he shall rule over you.”
17 And to Adam he said,
“Because you have listened to the voice of your wife
and have eaten of the tree
of which I commanded you,
‘You shall not eat of it,’
cursed is the ground because of you;
in toil you shall eat of it all the days of your life;
18 Both thorns and thistles it shall bring forth for you;
and you shall eat the plants of the field.
19 By the sweat of your face
you shall eat bread,
till you return to the ground,
for out of it you were taken;
for you are dust,
and to dust you shall return.”
20 Now the man called his wife's name Eve, because she was the mother of all living. 21 And Jehovah God made for Adam and for his wife garments of skins and clothed them. 22 Then Jehovah God said, “Behold, the man has become like one of us in knowing good and evil; and in order that he may not put his hand out and take fruit also from the tree of life and eat and live forever.” 23 Therefore Jehovah God sent him out from the garden of Eden, to cultivate the ground from which he was taken. 24 So he drove the man out, and at the east of the garden of Eden he placed the cherubim and a flaming sword that turned every way to guard the way to the tree of life.
Cain and Abel
4 Now the man knew Eve his wife, and she conceived and bore Cain, and said, “I have gotten a man with the help of Jehovah.” 2 And again she bore his brother Abel. And Abel was a keeper of sheep, but Cain was a tiller of the ground.
3 And in the course of time Cain brought to Jehovah an offering of the fruit of the ground. 4 And Abel, he also brought of the firstlings of his flock and of their fat portions. And Jehovah had regard for Abel and his offering; 5 but for Cain and his offering he had no regard. So Cain was very angry, and his face fell. 6 Then Jehovah said to Cain, “Why are you angry, and why has your face fallen? 7 If you do well, will there not be a lifting up? And if you do not do well, sin is crouching at the door. Its desire is for you, but you must rule over it.”
8 Cain said to Abel his brother. “Let us go out into the field.” And it came about when they were in the field, that Cain rose up against Abel his brother and killed him.
9 Then Jehovah said to Cain, “Where is Abel your brother?” And he said, “I do not know. Am I my brother’s keeper?” 10 He said, “What have you done? The voice of your brother’s blood is crying to me from the ground. 11 Now you are cursed from the ground, which has opened its mouth to receive your brother’s blood from your hand. 12 When you cultivate the ground, it will no longer yield its strength to you; you will be a fugitive and a wanderer on the earth.” 13 Cain said to Jehovah, “My punishment is greater than I can bear! 14 Behold, you have driven me today away from the ground, and from your face I shall be hidden. I shall be a fugitive and a wanderer on the earth, and whoever finds me will kill me.” 15 So Jehovah said to him, “Not so! Whoever kills Cain, vengeance will be taken on him sevenfold.” And Jehovah put a mark on Cain, so that no one finding him would slay him.
16 Then Cain went out from the presence of Jehovah, and dwelt in the land of Nod, east of Eden.
17 Cain had sexual relations with his wife and she conceived, and gave birth to Enoch; and he built a city, and called the name of the city Enoch, after the name of his son, Enoch. 18 Now to Enoch was born Irad, and Irad fathered Mehujael, and Mehujael fathered Methushael, and Methushael fathered Lamech. 19 And Lamech took two wives. The name of the one was Adah, and the name of the other Zillah. 20 Adah gave birth to Jabal; he was the father of those who dwell in tents and have livestock. 21 His brother’s name was Jubal; he was the father of all those who play the lyre and pipe. 22 As for Zillah, she also bore Tubal-cain, the forger of all instruments of bronze and iron; and the sister of Tubal-cain was Naamah.
23 Lamech said to his wives,
“Adah and Zillah,
Listen to my voice,
You wives of Lamech,
Give heed to my speech,
For I have killed a man for wounding me;
And a boy for striking me;
24 If Cain is avenged sevenfold,
Then Lamech seventy-sevenfold.”
25 Adam had sexual relations with his wife again; and she bore a son and called his name Seth, for, she said, “God has appointed me another offspring in place of Abel, for Cain killed him.” 26 To Seth, to him also a son was born; and he called his name Enosh. At that time men began to call upon the name of Jehovah.
Adam's Descendants to Noah
5 This is the book of the history of Adam. In the day when God created man, he made him in the likeness of God. 2 Male and female he created them, and he blessed them and named them Man when they were created.
3 When Adam had lived one hundred and thirty years, he became the father of a son in his own likeness, according to his image, and named him Seth. 4 Then the days of Adam after he became the father of Seth were eight hundred years, and he had other sons and daughters. 5 So all the days that Adam lived were nine hundred and thirty years, and he died.
6 Seth lived one hundred and five years, and became the father of Enosh. 7 Then Seth lived eight hundred and seven years after he became the father of Enosh, and he had other sons and daughters. 8 So all the days of Seth were nine hundred and twelve years, and he died.
9 Enosh lived ninety years, and became the father of Kenan. 10 Then Enosh lived eight hundred and fifteen years after he became the father of Kenan, and he had other sons and daughters. 11 So all the days of Enosh were nine hundred and five years, and he died.
12 Kenan lived seventy years, and became the father of Mahalalel. 13 Then Kenan lived eight hundred and forty years after he became the father of Mahalalel, and he had other sons and daughters. 14 So all the days of Kenan were nine hundred and ten years, and he died.
15 Mahalalel lived sixty-five years, and became the father of Jared. 16 Then Mahalalel lived eight hundred and thirty years after he became the father of Jared, and he had other sons and daughters. 17 So all the days of Mahalalel were eight hundred and ninety-five years, and he died.
18 Jared lived one hundred and sixty-two years, and became the father of Enoch. 19 Then Jared lived eight hundred years after he became the father of Enoch, and he had other sons and daughters. 20 So all the days of Jared were nine hundred and sixty-two years, and he died.
21 Enoch lived sixty-five years, and became the father of Methuselah. 22 Then Enoch walked with God three hundred years after he became the father of Methuselah, and he had other sons and daughters. 23 So all the days of Enoch were three hundred and sixty-five years. 24 Enoch walked with God; and he was not, for God took him.
25 Methuselah lived one hundred and eighty-seven years, and became the father of Lamech. 26 Then Methuselah lived seven hundred and eighty-two years after he became the father of Lamech, and he had other sons and daughters. 27 So all the days of Methuselah were nine hundred and sixty-nine years, and he died.
28 Lamech lived one hundred and eighty-two years, and became the father of a son. 29 Now he called his name Noah, saying, “This one will give us comfort from our work and from the toil of our hands arising from the ground which Jehovah has cursed.” 30 Then Lamech lived five hundred and ninety-five years after he became the father of Noah, and he had other sons and daughters. 31 So all the days of Lamech were seven hundred and seventy-seven years, and he died.
32 Noah was five hundred years old, and Noah became the father of Shem, Ham, and Japheth.
The Corruption of Mankind
6 Now it came about, when men began to multiply on the face of the ground, and daughters were born to them, 2 that the sons of God saw that the daughters of men were beautiful; and they took wives for themselves, whomever they chose. 3 Then Jehovah said, “My Spirit shall not strive with man forever, for he also is flesh; therefore his days shall be one hundred and twenty years.” 4 The Nephilim were on the earth in those days, and also afterward, when the sons of God came in to the daughters of men, and they bore children to them. Those were the mighty men who were of old, men of renown.
5 Then Jehovah saw that the wickedness of man was great on the earth, and that every intent of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually. 6 And Jehovah regretted that he had made man on the earth, and it grieved him to his heart. 7 Jehovah said, “I will blot out man whom I have created from the face of the land, from man to animals to creeping things and to birds of the heavens; for I regret that I have made them.” 8 But Noah found favor in the eyes of Jehovah.
11 Now the earth was corrupt in the sight of God, and the earth was filled with violence. 12 And God saw the earth, and behold, it was corrupt, for all flesh had corrupted their way on the earth.
13 Then God said to Noah, “The end of all flesh has come before me; for the earth is filled with violence because of them; and behold, I am about to destroy them with the earth. 14 Make yourself an ark of gopher wood. Make rooms in the ark, and cover it inside and out with pitch. 15 This is how you shall make it: the length of the ark three hundred cubits, its breadth fifty cubits, and its height thirty cubits. 16 You shall make a roof for the ark, and finish it to a cubit from the above; and set the door of the ark in the side of it; you shall make it with lower, second, and third decks. 17 Behold, I, even I am bringing the flood of waters upon the earth, to destroy all flesh in which is the breath of life, from under heaven; everything that is on the earth shall perish. 18 But I will establish my covenant with you, and you shall come into the ark, you, your sons, your wife, and your sons' wives with you. 19 And of all living creatures of all flesh, you shall bring two of every sort into the ark, to keep them alive with you; they shall be male and female. 20 Of the flying creatures after their kind, and of the animals after their kind, of every creeping thing of the ground after its kind, two of every sort will come to you to keep them alive. 21 As for you, take for yourself some of all food which is edible, and gather it to yourself; and it shall be for food for you and for them.” 22 And Noah did according to all that God had commanded him. He did just so.
7 Then Jehovah said to Noah, “Go into the ark, you and all your household, for I have seen that you are righteous before me in this generation. 2 You shall take with you of every clean animal by sevens, a male and his female; and of the animals that are not clean two, the male and its mate; 3 also of the flying creatures of the heavens by sevens, male and female, to keep their offspring alive on the face of all the earth. 4 For after seven more days, I will send rain on the earth forty days and forty nights; and I will blot out from the face of the land every living thing that I have made.” 5 And Noah did all that Jehovah had commanded him.
6 Now Noah was six hundred years old when the flood of waters came upon the earth. 7 And Noah and his sons and his wife and his sons' wives with him went into the ark to escape the waters of the flood. 8 Of clean animals and animals that are not clean and birds and everything that creeps on the ground, 9 there went into the ark to Noah by twos, male and female, as God had commanded Noah. 10 It came about after the seven days, that the water of the flood came upon the earth. 11 In the six hundredth year of Noah’s life, in the second month, on the seventeenth day of the month, on the same day all the fountains of the great deep burst open, and the windows of heaven were opened. 12 And the rain fell upon the earth for forty days and forty nights.
13 On the very same day Noah and his sons, Shem and Ham and Japheth, and Noah's wife and the three wives of his sons with them entered the ark, 14 they and every beast, according to its kind, and all the livestock according to their kinds, and every creeping thing that creeps on the earth, according to its kind, and every bird, according to its kind, every winged creature. 15 And they went into the ark with Noah, two and two of all flesh in which there was the breath of life. 16 And those that entered, male and female of all flesh, went in as God had commanded him. And the Lord shut him in.
17 And the flood continued forty days on the earth. The waters increased and bore up the ark, and it rose high above the earth. 18 The waters prevailed and increased greatly on the earth, and the ark floated on the face of the waters. 19 And the waters prevailed overwhelmingly on the earth that all the high mountains under the whole heavens were covered. 20 The waters prevailed above the mountains, covering them fifteen cubits deep. 21 And every living thing that moved on the earth perished, the birds, and the domesticated animals, and the wild animals, and everything that swarmed on the earth, and all mankind; 22 everything in whose nostrils was the breath of the spirit of life among all that was on dry land, died. 23 And he blotted out every living thing that was upon the face of the land, from man to animals to creeping things and to flying creatures of the heavens, and they were blotted out from the earth; and only Noah was left, together with those that were with him in the ark. 24 The waters prevailed on the earth one hundred and fifty days.
The Flood Subsides
8 But God remembered Noah and all the beasts and all the livestock that were with him in the ark; and God made a wind blow over the earth, and the waters subsided. 2 The fountains of the deep and the windows of the heavens were closed, the rain from the heavens was restrained, 3 and the waters receded from the earth continually, and at the end of one hundred and fifty days the waters had abated. 4 And in the seventh month, on the seventeenth day of the month, the ark came to rest on the mountains of Ararat. 5 And the waters continued to abate until the tenth month; in the tenth month, on the first day of the month, the tops of the mountains were visible.
6 And it came be at the end of forty days Noah opened the window of the ark that he had made, 7 and he sent forth a raven; it went out, going out and returning until the waters were dried up from the earth. 8 Then he sent forth a dove from him, to see if the waters had subsided from the face of the ground, 9 but the dove found no place to set her foot, and she returned to him to the ark, for the waters were still on the face of the whole earth. So he put out his hand and took her and brought her into the ark to himself. 10 And he waited another seven days, and again he sent out the dove from the ark. 11 And the dove came back to him in the evening, and behold, in her mouth was a freshly plucked olive leaf. So Noah knew that the waters was abated from the earth. 12 And he waited again another seven days, and he sent out the dove, but it did not return again to him.
13 In the six hundred and first year, in the first month, the first day of the month, the waters were dried up from upon the earth. And Noah removed the covering of the ark and looked, and behold, the face of the ground was dried up. 14 In the second month, on the twenty-seventh day of the month, the earth was dry. 15 Then God spoke to Noah, saying, 16 “Go out from the ark, you and your wife, and your sons and your sons' wives with you. 17 Bring out with you all the living creatures that is with you of all flesh, flying creatures and animals and every creeping thing that creeps on the earth, that they may swarm on the earth, and be fruitful and multiply on the earth.” 18 So Noah went out, and his sons and his wife and his sons' wives with him. 19 Every beast, every creeping thing, and every flying creatures, everything that moves on the earth, went out by families from the ark.
20 Then Noah built an altar to Jehovah and took some of every clean animal and some of every clean bird and offered burnt offerings on the altar. 21 Jehovah smelled the soothing aroma; and the Jehovah in his heart, “I will never again curse the ground on account of man, for the intent of man’s heart is evil from his youth; and I will never again destroy every living thing, as I have done.
22 While the earth remains, seedtime and harvest, cold and heat, summer and winter, day and night, shall not cease.”
Covenant of the Rainbow
9 And God blessed Noah and his sons and said to them, “Be fruitful and multiply and fill the earth. 2 The fear of you and the dread of you shall be upon every living creature of the earth and upon every flying creature of the heavens, upon every creature that moves on the ground and all the fish of the sea. Into your hand they are delivered. 3 Every moving thing that lives shall be food for you; as I gave you the green plants, I give you everything. 4 Only flesh with its soul, its blood, you shall not eat 5 And for your blood of your souls I will require back: from every living creature I will require it and from man. From the hand of man, even at the hand of every man’s brother, I will require the soul of man.
6 “Whoever sheds man’s blood, by man his blood shall be shed, for in the image of God he made man. 7 “And you, be fruitful and multiply, increase abundantly on the earth and multiply in it.”
8 Then God said to Noah and to his sons with him, saying, 9 “Behold, I establish my covenant with you and your seed after you, 10 and with every living soul that is with you, the birds, the cattle, and every beast of the earth with you; of all that comes out of the ark, to all the beasts of the earth. 11 I establish my covenant with you, that never again will all flesh be cut off by the waters of the flood, and never again will there be a flood to destroy the earth.” 12 And God said, “This is the sign of the covenant that I make between me and you and every living creature that is with you, for all future generations: 13 I have set my bow in the cloud, and it shall be a sign of the covenant between me and the earth. 14 It shall be, when I bring clouds over the earth, that the bow is seen in the cloud, 15 then I will remember my covenant that is between me and you and every living creature of all flesh. And the waters shall never again become a flood to destroy all flesh. 16 When the bow is in the clouds, I will see it and remember the everlasting covenant between God and every living creature of all flesh that is on the earth.” 17 And God said to Noah, “This is the sign of the covenant that I have established between me and all flesh that is on the earth.”
Prophecies about Descendants of Noah
18 The sons of Noah who went forth from the ark were Shem, Ham, and Japheth. (Ham was the father of Canaan.) 19 These three were the sons of Noah, and from these the whole earth was scattered.
20 Noah began to be a man of the soil, and he planted a vineyard. 21 He drank of the wine and became drunk, and uncovered himself inside his tent. 22 And Ham, the father of Canaan, saw the nakedness of his father and told his two brothers outside. 23 Then Shem and Japheth took a garment, and laid it on both their shoulders, and walked backward and covered the nakedness of their father; and their faces were turned backward, and they did not see their father's nakedness. 24 When Noah awoke from his wine, he knew what his youngest son had done to him. 25 And he said,
“Cursed be Canaan;
a slave of slaves shall he be to his brothers.”
26 He also said,
“Blessed be Jehovah, the God of Shem;
and let Canaan be his slave.
27 “May God enlarge Japheth,
and let him dwell in the tents of Shem;
and let Canaan be his slave.”
28 Noah lived three hundred and fifty years after the flood. 29 And all the days of Noah were nine hundred and fifty years, and he died.
Descendants of Noah
10 Now these are the records of the generations of Shem, Ham, and Japheth, the sons of Noah; and sons were born to them after the flood.
2 The sons of Japheth: Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshech, and Tiras. 3 The sons of Gomer: Ashkenaz, Riphath, and Togarmah. 4 The sons of Javan: Elishah, Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim. 5 From these the coastland peoples spread in their lands, each with his own language, by their clans, in their nations.
6 The sons of Ham: Cush, Egypt, Put, and Canaan. 7 The sons of Cush: Seba, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah, and Sabteca. The sons of Raamah: Sheba and Dedan. 8 Cush fathered Nimrod; he was the first on earth to be a mighty man. 9 He was a mighty hunter before Jehovah. Therefore it is said, “Like Nimrod a mighty hunter before Jehovah.” 10 The beginning of his kingdom was Babel, Erech, Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar. 11 From that land he went forth into Assyria, and built Nineveh and Rehoboth-Ir and Calah, 12 and Resen between Nineveh and Calah; that is the great city. 13 Mizraim fathered Ludim, Anamim, Lehabim, Naphtuhim, 14 and Pathrusim and Casluhim (from which came the Philistines) and Caphtorim.
15 Canaan fathered Sidon his firstborn and Heth, 16 and the Jebusites, the Amorites, the Girgashites, 17 the Hivites, the Arkites, the Sinites, 18 the Arvadites, the Zemarites, and the Hamathites. Afterward the clans of the Canaanites dispersed. 19 And the territory of the Canaanites extended from Sidon in the direction of Gerar as far as Gaza, and in the direction of Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, and Zeboiim, as far as Lasha. 20 These are the sons of Ham, according to their families, their languages, their lands, and their nations.
21 To Shem also, the father of all the children of Eber, the elder brother of Japheth, children were born. 22 The sons of Shem: Elam, Asshur, Arpachshad, Lud, and Aram. 23 The sons of Aram: Uz, Hul, Gether, and Mash. 24 Arpachshad fathered Shelah; and Shelah fathered Eber. 25 To Eber were born two sons: the name of the one was Peleg, for in his days the earth was divided, and his brother's name was Joktan. 26 Joktan fathered Almodad, Sheleph, Hazarmaveth, Jerah, 27 Hadoram, Uzal, Diklah, 28 Obal, Abimael, Sheba, 29 Ophir, Havilah, and Jobab; all these were the sons of Joktan. 30 The territory in which they lived extended from Mesha in the direction of Sephar to the hill country of the east. 31 These are the sons of Shem, according to their families, according to their languages, by their lands, according to their nations.
32 These are the families of the sons of Noah, according to their genealogies, by their nations; and out of these the nations were separated on the earth after the flood.
Universal Language, Babel, Confusion
11 Now the whole earth had one language and the same words. 2 And as men migrated from the east, they found a plain in the land of Shinar and settled there. 3 And they said to one another, “Come, let us make bricks, and burn them thoroughly.” And they had brick for stone, and bitumen for mortar. 4 Then they said, “Come, let us build ourselves a city and a tower with its top in the heavens, and let us make a name for ourselves, lest we be scattered over the face of the whole earth.” 5 Jehovah came down to see the city and the tower that the sons of men had built. 6 And Jehovah said, “Behold, they are one people, and they have all one language, and this is only the beginning of what they will do. And nothing that they propose to do will now be impossible for them. 7 Come, let us go down and there confuse their language, so that they will not understand one another’s speech. 8 So Jehovah scattered them from there over the face of the whole earth, and they stopped building the city. 9 Therefore its name was called Babel, because there Jehovah confused the language of the whole earth; and from there Jehovah scattered them abroad over the face of the whole earth.
Descendants of Shem
10 These are the generations of Shem. When Shem was one hundred years old, he fathered Arphaxad, two years after the flood. 11 And Shem lived five hundred years after he fathered Arphaxad, and he fathered other sons and daughters.
14 When Shelah had lived thirty years, he fathered Eber. 15 And Shelah lived four hundred and three years after he fathered Eber, and he fathered other sons and daughters.
16 When Eber had lived thirty-four years, he fathered Peleg. 17 And Eber lived four hundred and thirty years after he fathered Peleg, and he fathered other sons and daughters.
18 When Peleg had lived thirty years, he fathered Reu. 19 And Peleg lived two hundred and nine years after he fathered Reu, and he fathered other sons and daughters.
20 When Reu had lived thirty-two years, he fathered Serug. 21 And Reu lived two hundred and seven years after he fathered Serug, and he fathered other sons and daughters.
22 When Serug had lived thirty years, he fathered Nahor. 23 And Serug lived two hundred years after he fathered Nahor, and he fathered other sons and daughters.
24 When Nahor had lived twenty-nine years, he fathered Terah. 25 And Nahor lived one hundred and nineteen years after he fathered Terah, and he fathered other sons and daughters.
26 When Terah had lived seventy years, he fathered Abram, Nahor, and Haran.
27 Now these are the generations of Terah. Terah fathered Abram, Nahor, and Haran, and Haran fathered Lot. 28 Haran died in the presence of his father Terah in the land of his birth, in Ur of the Chaldeans. 29 And Abram and Nahor took wives for themselves. The name of the wife of Abram was Sarai, and the name of the wife of Nahor was Milcah, the daughter of Haran, the father of Milcah and Iscah. 30 Now Sarai was barren; she had no child.
31 Terah took Abram his son, and Lot, the son of Haran, his grandson, and Sarai his daughter-in-law, the wife of Abram his son, and went out with them from Ur of the Chaldeans to go to the land of Canaan. And they went to Haran, and they settled there. 32 And the days of Terah were two hundred and five years, and Terah died in Haran.
Abram Leaves Haran for Canaan
12 Now Jehovah said to Abram, “Go out from your land and from your relatives, and from the house of your father, to the land that I will show you. 2 And I will make of you a great nation, and I will bless you and make your name great, so that you will be a blessing. 3 I will bless those who bless you, and him who curses you I will curse, and in you all the families of the earth shall be blessed.”
4 So Abram went, as Jehovah had told him, and Lot went with him. Abram was seventy-five years old when he departed from Haran. 5 And Abram took Sarai his wife, and Lot the son of his brother, and all their possessions that they had gathered, and the souls that they had acquired in Haran, and they set out to go to the land of Canaan. When they came to the land of Canaan. 6 Abram traveled through the land up to the place of Shechem, to the Oak of Moreh. Now the Canaanites were in the land. 7 Jehovah appeared to Abram and said, “To your offspring I will give this land.” So he built there an altar to Jehovah, who had appeared to him. 8 From there he moved to the hill country on the east of Bethel and pitched his tent, with Bethel on the west and Ai on the east. And there he built an altar to Jehovah and called upon the name of the Jehovah. 9 And Abram journeyed on, still going toward the Negeb.
MORE COMING SOON
 I.e. watery deep, an area below the surface of bodies of water
 Expanse: (Heb., raqia) is the atmosphere surrounding earth the space above the earth that contains the clouds, planets, and stars. It is where the birds fly and the luminaries reside. God began to call the expanse heaven (or sky). The Psalmist tells us ‘The heavens are telling of the glory of God; and the expanse is declaring the work of his hands.’–Gen. 1:6-8, 14-15, 17, 20; Ps. 19:1; 150:1.
 Progressive action indicated by the imperfect state
 The Syr. has “over all the wild animals of the earth” instead of “over all the earth.” Codex Leningrad B 19A is the earliest complete manuscript of the Hebrew Scriptures (c. 1008 C.E.), which serves as a primary source for the recovery of details in the missing parts of the Aleppo Codex. The Aleppo Codex is an important Hebrew Masoretic manuscript from about 930 C.E. Codex Leningrad and the Aleppo Codex are the two most important Hebrew Old Testament manuscripts. These two Hebrew texts are the most significant manuscripts of the Old Testament to be discovered so far and as far as usefulness and significance. The Targums or the Vulgate have their own fair share of textual variants but the Syriac Old Testament Peshitta has even more textual variants like the one we find above in Genesis 1:26. Thus, clearly, undoubtedly, the original reading was “and over all the earth,”
 The BHS has the original reading “on the seventh day God finished his work,” while we have a variant in the LXX, QT, SP, and SYR “on the sixth day God finished his work.” The versions are noted for their variants, especially the Syriac Old Testament Peshitta. It might be that the scribes were attempting to make the reference to the seventh day more clear at the end of the verse. "And God finished on the sixth day his works which he made, and he ceased on the seventh day from all his works which he made.
 Or the generation of ... The Greek word genesis is used in the Greek Septuagint (LXX) to render the Hebrew term tohledhohth, which generally has a similar meaning, denoting the history in numerous places within the book of Genesis, which is usually rendered “generations” in the book of Genesis (ASV, ESV, LEB, NASB) or “history.” It is used as a heading to set up the historical account that is to follow. – Gen. 2:4; 5:1; 6:9; 10:1; 11:10, 27; 25:12, 19; 36:1, 9; 37:2.
 The first occurrence of God’s personal name, יהוה (JHVH/YHWH), which is found in the Hebrew Old Testament 6,828 times.
 Or cultivate the ground
 Or spring
 “Man” occurs with the definite article (i.e., “the man” and indicates the noun is singular
 Heb., neshamah [“breath”] chaiyim [“of life”]
 Lit was going out; Hebrew participle refers to a continuous stream
 Lit became four heads
 Assyria Heb., Ashshur
 Lit eat from it
 Lit dying you [singular] shall die. Heb moth tamuth; the first reference to death in the Scriptures
 Lit as his opposite; counterpart or complement, something that completes or perfects him
 In Hebrew you is plural in verses 1–5
 Lit the voice
 Or in the cool of the day
 Personal name meaning “life.” (Heb., Chawwah)
 Meaning Adam had sexual relations with Eve
 That is, gotten one
 That is, gave birth; Lit And she added to bear
 Lit of days
 Or, his countenance fell
 This is a shortening of the Hebrew idiom “to lift up the face,” which means “to accept” favorably
 Likely Genesis 4:8 originally included two consecutive clauses that end with the expression “in(to) the field” (bassadeh). It is most likely that the scribe’s eye skipped over the earlier expression ending with the expression “into the field” to the same word in the second instance; therefore, accidentally omitting the quotation. Clearly, the LXX, as well as the SP, SYR, and the VG have been useful in identifying this error in the Hebrew text. The odds are increased greatly that “let us go over into the field” was in the original because of it being found in such a wide number of versions, especially with the Septuagint being one of those versions.
 The Tetragrammaton, God’s personal name, יהוה (JHVH/YHWH), which is found in the Hebrew Old Testament 6,828 times.
 The BHS/MT, along with the KJV, ASV, NASB, and the LEB has the reading “Therefore whoever kills Cain.” This reading would suggest that God is agreeing with Cain that his punishment is too severe (vv. 13–14). On the other hand, we have a variant in the LXX, SYR, and VG, along with the ESV, NIV, NRSV, REB, and the UASV that reads “Not so! Whoever kills Cain.” In this reading, God is correcting Cain’s fearful rant in his response, not dealing with his being expelled, telling him that his punishment is not too severe. The external evidence is found in such a wide number of versions (SYR, VG), especially with the Septuagint being one of those versions.
 I.e. wandering
 Lit knew
 Lit Adam
 Lit begot
 The BHS/MT has the reading “walked with God” in both verse 22 and 24 of chapter 5. On the other hand, we have a variant in the Greek Septuagint (LXX) that reads “Enoch was pleasing to God” in both verse 22 and 24 of chapter 5. The metaphor “walked with God” would have been deemed offensive to the devoted worshippers, irreverence or disrespect for God, audacious in that a human could walk with God or worse still that God was being lowered to a human level, an imperfect one at that. Clearly, the Septuagint rendered the metaphor “walked with God” as a paraphrase “Enoch was pleasing to God.”
 See note on 5:22
 Septuagint was not found
 God took Enoch so as to not see death; See Hebrews 11:5
 Meaning Rest
 Or rest or relief
 Septuagint angels
 This refers to angelic sons of God. See Job 1:6; 38:7; 2 Peter 2:4; Jude 1:6
 Lit good
 Or contend
 He is a reference to man
 The Nephilim were giant offspring resulting from the sexual relations between sons of God (i.e., angels) and the daughters of men (i.e., human women).
 I.e., the days when Adam and Eve, and their descendants, began having female offspring. All of the Nephilim were destroyed in the flood of Genesis 7.
 American Translation: “the whole bent of his thinking was anything but evil.” In other words all imperfect humans are mentally bent toward evil.
 Feel regret over: (nacham) The Hebrew word (nacham) translated “be sorry,” “repent," “regret,” "be comforted, "comfort," "reconsider" and "change one's mind" can pertain to a change of attitude or intention. God is perfect and therefore does not make mistakes in his dealings with his creation. However, he can have a change of attitude or intention as regards how humans react to his warnings. God can go from the Creator of humans to that of a destroyer of them because of his unrepentant wickedness and failure to heed his warnings. On the other hand, if they repent and turn from their wicked ways, he can be compassionate and merciful, slow to anger, and abounding in loyal love; and he will "reconsider" the calamity that he may have intended.–Genesis 6:6; Exodus 32:14; Joel 2:13.
 Or sky
 Blameless: (Heb. tam, tamim; Gr. amomos, amometos) means, “perfect, blameless, sincerity, entire, whole, complete, and full.” Of course, Noah, Jacob, and Job were not literally perfect. When used of imperfect humans, the terms are relative, not absolute. However, if we are fully committed to following, a life course based on God’s will and purposes, fully living by his laws, repent when we fall short, he will credit us righteousness.–Gen. 6:6; 25:27; Job 9:20-22l Ps. 119:1; Pro. 11:20; Phil 2:15; 1 Thess. 5:23.
 Lit begot
 A resinous wood, possibly cypress (wood). The exact identity of the wood is unknown; “gopher wood” is simply a transliteration of the Hebrew.
 I.e. One cubit equals approx. 45 cm or 18 in.
 I.e. One cubit equals approx. 45 cm or 18 in.
 I.e. One cubit equals approx. 45 cm or 18 in.
 Or window, i.e., an opening for the provision of light.
 I.e. One cubit equals approx. 45 cm or 18 in.
 I.e., top
 Lit seven seven
 Lit seven seven
 Lit was
 Lit two two
 Lit were
 I.e. surface
 Lit very very
 A cubit equaled 44.5 cm (17.5 in.).
 Lit creatures of all flesh
 American Translation: “the bent of man’s mind may be evil from his very youth.” In other words, all imperfect humans are mentally bent toward evil.
 I.e. life
 I.e. your lifeblood
 I.e. life
 I.e. offspring or descendants
 I.e. living creature
 The BHS/MT has the reading “to all the beasts of the earth” in verse 10 of chapter 9. On the other hand, the Greek Septuagint (LXX) does not include “to all the beasts of the earth” in verse 10 of chapter 9. The verbal repetition in the Hebrew test is obviously for emphasis. The Septuagint continues to be very much important today and is used by textual scholars to help uncover copyists’ errors that might have crept into the Hebrew manuscripts either intentionally or unintentionally. However, it cannot do it alone without the support of other sources. While the Septuagint is the second most important tool after the original language texts for ascertaining the original words of the original Hebrew text, it is also true that the LXX translators took liberties at times, embellishing the text, deliberate changes, harmonizations, and completing of details. It could be here that the translators felt the repetition of "every beast of the earth" was redundant or it was simply accidentally dropped from the text.
 I.e., populated
 I.e., turned away
 I.e., drunkenness
 Or servant of servants
 Most of the MT has the reading “Dodanim” in verse 4 of chapter 10. On the other hand, the Greek Septuagint (LXX) and the Samaritan Pentateuch (SP) and some Hebrew manuscripts have “Rodanim” in verse 4 of chapter 10. “Rodanim” is also found in the Masoretic Text (MT) at 1 Chronicles 1:7. However, many of the Hebrew manuscripts, as well as the Syriac Peshitta and the Latin Vulgate read “Dodanim.” In Hebrew, the letter resh “r” (ר) and the letter dalet “d” (ד) are very similar graphically and were often confused by a copyist. (e.g., “Riphath” in Gen. 10:3 appears as “Diphath” at 1 Chron. 1:6 in the MT) Most translations present Dodanim in Genesis 10:4 and Rodanim at 1 Chronicles 1:7. Dodanim is the more difficult reading to explain, which usually means the preferred reading if the change was intentional. Biblica Hebraica by Rudolf Kittel (1905) gives דודנים (“Dodanim”) in Genesis 10:4 with רודנים (“Rodanim”) listed as a textual variant in the critical apparatus. Assyriologist Pinhas Artzi writes, “It is possible that the Rodanim should be equated with the Dananians (?) who are mentioned in the El-Amarna letters (J.A. Knudtzon, Die El-Amarna Tafeln, 1 (1907), 151, lines 48–58, letter from Tyre) and in the Karatepe Inscriptions (see Donner and Roellig, in bibl.) or with Yadnâna, perhaps Cyprus (cf. Elishah). However, the most plausible, although not entirely satisfactory, explanation remains that the Rodanim were inhabitants of Rhodes.”
 I.e., He was a mighty hunter in opposition to Jehovah. Lit in front of or before, but in the sense of defiance of and opposition to, as in the case of the same expression in Num. 16:2; Josh. 7:12-13; 1 Ch 14:8; 2 Ch 14:10; Job 23:4. Some Bible scholars attach a favorable sense to the Hebrew preposition meaning in front of or before, the Jewish Targums, the writings of the historian Josephus, and also the context of Genesis chapter 10 suggest that Nimrod was a mighty hunter in opposition to Jehovah.
 The MT has the reading “Mash” in verse 23 of chapter 10. On the other hand, the Greek Septuagint (LXX) has “Meshech” in verse 23 of chapter 10. “Meshech.” is also found in the Masoretic Text (MT) at 1 Chronicles 1:17.
 The MT has the reading “Arphaxad fathered Shelah” in verse 24 of chapter 10. On the other hand, the Greek Septuagint (LXX) has “Arphaxad fathered Cainan, and Cainan fathered Sala [Shelah]” in verse 24 of chapter 10. “Arphaxad fathered Shelah” is also found in the Masoretic Text (MT) at 1 Chronicles 1:18. It would seem that Luke followed the Septuagint reading. (Luke 3:35–36) Evidently, Arpachshad was the father of Shelah.
 Peleg means division
 The Hebrew has the reading “thirty-five-years” in verse 12 of chapter 11. On the other hand, the Greek Septuagint (LXX) has “a hundred and thirty-five years” in verse 12 of chapter 11. While we are focused on the LXX here, in the entirety of the genealogy both the LXX and the SP are making attempts at harmonizing the ages of the patriarchs. They may very well be doing this to have this genealogy list agree with the one at Genesis 5:3-32.
 The Hebrew has the reading “And Arpachshad lived four hundred and three years after he fathered Shelah, and he fathered other sons and daughters.” in verse 13 of chapter 11. On the other hand, the Greek Septuagint (LXX) differs tremendously “And Arphaxad lived after he had begotten Cainan, four hundred years, and begot sons and daughters, and died. And Cainan lived a hundred and thirty years and begot Sala; and Canaan lived after he had begotten Sala, three hundred and thirty years, and begot sons and daughters, and died.” in verse 13 of chapter 11.
 Or terebinth